One-Stop Packaging Solution Supplier Since 2002

 

the environmental footprint of morphine: a life cycle assessment from opium poppy farming to the packaged drug

by:SWIFT     2019-12-03
Abstract: objective to study the environmental life cycle of intravenous morphine production from opium poppy cultivation to 100 mg (
Standard infusion bags). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-
Life cycle assessment (observational).
The environment of the opium poppy farm in Australia, as well as facilities for the manufacture of morphine, sterilization and packaging of morphine bags.
Main indicators of environmental impact (
Equivalent of carbon dioxide (‘CO2 e’)
Discharge and water)
Produce 100 mg of morphine.
From poppy cultivation, granulation, mass morphine manufacturing to final formulation, all aspects of morphine production. Industry-
Procurement and inventory
The source database is used for most inputs.
Results morphine sulfate (
100 mg 100 mL)
Climate change effects of 204g CO2 e (
95% CI 189 to g CO2 e)
, Near the carbon dioxide emissions of driving an average of 1 kilometer of a car.
Water is 7. 8u2005L (95% CI 6. 7– to 9. 0u2005L)
Mainly from agriculture (6. 7u2005L).
All other environmental impacts are small, several orders of magnitude less than CO2 emissions and water use.
Almost 90% of carbon dioxide emissions occur in the final stages of 100 mg morphine manufacturing.
The packaging of morphine contributed 95g CO2 e, accounting for 46% of the total CO2 e (
95% CI 82 to 15g CO2 e).
The mixing, filling and sterilization of 100 mg morphine bags increased by 86g CO2 e, accounting for 42% (
95% CI 80 to 92g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6u2005g CO2 e, 3%)
Manufacturing and manufacturing (18u2005g CO2 e, 9%)
The contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is small.
Conclusion there is little environmental impact on the cultivation of opium poppy and the production of large quantities of morphine.
The final stages of morphine production, especially disinfection and packaging, account for almost 90% of the morphine carbon footprint.
Key measures to improve energy efficiency and sources of drug disinfection and packaging can be explored, as they are related to all drugs.
It is necessary to compare the environmental effects of other drug production as well as oral and intravenous preparations.
Objective to study the environmental life cycle of intravenous morphine production from opium poppy cultivation to 100 mg (
Standard infusion bags). Design ‘Cradle-to-grave’ process-
Life cycle assessment (observational).
The environment of the opium poppy farm in Australia, as well as facilities for the manufacture of morphine, sterilization and packaging of morphine bags.
Main indicators of environmental impact (
Equivalent of carbon dioxide (‘CO2 e’)
Discharge and water)
Produce 100 mg of morphine.
From poppy cultivation, granulation, mass morphine manufacturing to final formulation, all aspects of morphine production. Industry-
Procurement and inventory
The source database is used for most inputs.
Results morphine sulfate (
100 mg 100 mL)
Climate change effects of 204g CO2 e (
95% CI 189 to g CO2 e)
, Near the carbon dioxide emissions of driving an average of 1 kilometer of a car.
Water is 7. 8u2005L (95% CI 6. 7– to 9. 0u2005L)
Mainly from agriculture (6. 7u2005L).
All other environmental impacts are small, several orders of magnitude less than CO2 emissions and water use.
Almost 90% of carbon dioxide emissions occur in the final stages of 100 mg morphine manufacturing.
The packaging of morphine contributed 95g CO2 e, accounting for 46% of the total CO2 e (
95% CI 82 to 15g CO2 e).
The mixing, filling and sterilization of 100 mg morphine bags increased by 86g CO2 e, accounting for 42% (
95% CI 80 to 92g CO2 e). Poppy farming (6u2005g CO2 e, 3%)
Manufacturing and manufacturing (18u2005g CO2 e, 9%)
The contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is small.
Conclusion there is little environmental impact on the cultivation of opium poppy and the production of large quantities of morphine.
The final stages of morphine production, especially disinfection and packaging, account for almost 90% of the morphine carbon footprint.
Key measures to improve energy efficiency and sources of drug disinfection and packaging can be explored, as they are related to all drugs.
It is necessary to compare the environmental effects of other drug production as well as oral and intravenous preparations.
The impact of health care on the environment is gaining increasing attention.
1. 2 life cycle assessments (LCA)
Is a scientific method used to calculate the whole \"cradle\"to-
Serious environmental impact (‘footprint’)
A product or process.
3 LCA has been used to estimate the entire \"carbon footprint\" of healthcare, which is found to be the cause of 3% and 9.
8% of 2013 CO2 equivalent (‘CO2 e’)
Emissions from UK 4 and US 5.
The United States spends almost twice as much on health care as the United States. 17. 1%)
Proportion of gross domestic product (GDP)as the UK (9. 1%).
Carbon dioxide emissions from health care in Australia are unknown, although health care costs are similar to those in the UK (9. 4% of GDP).
In addition, clinical practice in Australia widely reflects the situation in the UK, Europe and Canada, although its financial cost is lower than that in the United States.
In 2012, the production of all drugs used by the National Health Service (NHS)
The UK contributes more than 20% to carbon dioxide emissions (
That is, all procurement, energy use and transportation)
Caused by NHS activities.
Thanks to this environmental footprint, the NHS sustainable development unit in the UK has developed guidelines for the implementation of the pharmaceutical LCAs.
LCAs, 12-15, are available throughout the operations8-11 and individual devices, but because of the specificity of drug synthesis, LCAs for drugs are rarely publicly available.
Some published \'-house’ (
Business confidence)
However, LCAs are executed by pharmaceutical companies.
Most published drugs LCAs only examine the technical aspects of drug manufacturing.
However, it is not clear how the 18-20 drug ingredients are grouped together and it is not possible to validate the industry LCA Publications.
Compared with the production of precursor components, the environmental impact of the drug is mostly due to the manufacture of the actual drug prescribed by the doctor.
21 there seems to be a very large carbon footprint in the production of all drugs, 4, 5, despite the lack of separate drug information.
Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to further understand the overall environmental impact of the drugs used by clinicians.
We chose to study morphine because it is a common drug known all over the world, and Australia produces a large amount of morphine that can be studied in cooperation with supportive pharmaceutical companies.
Morphine is listed on the WHO\'s list of essential drugs and \"remains the most extensive opium used for pain management.
\"In 2013, the legal production of the world\'s most common three opium preparations was 523 tons of morphine, 361 tons of codeine and 261 tons of oxycoone.
24 there are four kinds of natural opium extracted from opium poppy: morphine and codeine, and thebaine and oripavine (
Maternal compounds of hydrokeone and dinonofen).
Direct chemical synthesis of morphine has proven to be difficult, with 25, 26 and through poppy production still being the only commercial synthetic route.
Legal opium poppy Biobase drugs produced in Australia account for % of global supplyplant-based nitrogen-
Contains organic compounds such as morphine)
Including 37% of legitimate morphine exported to Europe, the UK and elsewhere.
Our goal is to quantify the environmental impact of all morphine (
Carbon dioxide emissions = carbon dioxide equivalent, water, aquatic and land pollution, etc)
From opium poppy cultivation, morphine sulfate production to intravenous preparations including packaging.
Kg CO2eq, the standard unit for measuring the carbon footprint, expresses the global warming potential of different greenhouse gases in \"co2\", which will produce the same amount of warming.
27 Australian intravenous morphine is most commonly prepared in 10 mg glass anpou for intravenous administration, for infusion and patients in 100 bags at a dose of 100 mg
Patient-controlled analgesia.
We are interested in the environmental impact of two intravenous preparations.
We made a cradle. to-
Morphine and Glaxo in menlca (
Crane (Glaxo)
And Baxter, two big international pharmaceutical companies.
Three companies in Australia produce 37% of the world\'s legitimate morphine, most of which (>25%)
Produced by company GSK.
28 Baxter did not produce morphine, but the only company in Australia that packaged and disinfected 100 mg of morphine into 100 bags. A cradle-to-
Gate LCA check the life cycle of the product from the beginning to the exit of the \"factory door\", excluding syringes, intravenous injection-
The dosing device used by clinicians when intravenous injection of morphine to patients.
In 2015, Sun Pharma acquired GSK\'s opium production business.
Since all data is obtained from GSK, \"sk\" will be mentioned later \".
The Western Health Ethics Committee approved this life cycle assessment (QA 2014. 10)
Melbourne, Australia.
The study was conducted from April 2014 to April 2016.
Funding comes from the Australian and New Zealand College of anesthesiology and Monash University.
Researchers can access from (1)
Poppy globalisation facilities at opium poppy farms and GSK in Tas man state ,(2)
GSK in Victoria and (3)
Baxter\'s intravenous production plant in Sydney.
No patient was involved in the study.
The measurement of research problems and results was entirely developed by researchers.
LCA is a scientific method that provides modeling of the environment of a product or process throughout its life cycle.
3 in 1991, the Institute of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry defined six components to be analyzed in the life cycle evaluation :(1)
Acquisition of raw materials; (2)
Processing and manufacturing; (3)
Distribution and transportation; (4)
Use, reuse and maintenance; (5)recycling and (6)
Waste Management.
3 International Organization for (ISO)
How LCAs should be executed has been standardized (
ISO 14040 series).
We made a process.
Based on LCA, that is, computing environmental impacts for each product or service in the life cycle based on measured inputs, such as power or chemical usage.
Following the ISO 14040 standard, the LCA must have a system boundary (figure 1)
, There is a clear prior definition of what is included in the analysis and what is not included.
29 according to these criteria, 29 all existing infrastructure required for morphine production (
Such as plant equipment)
On the outside of the system boundary.
In contrast, anything used to make, transport or deliver morphine has been checked; that is, (1)raw material (plant-
Cellulose-based products, for example)extraction, (2)
Chemical reactions and solvents ,(3)energy use, (4)
Transportation of all these agents and (5)
Related packaging and waste.
Download figureOpen for morphine production in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 system boundary.
Life cycle assessment.
LCA models with different types of data.
Some data are collected directly, for example, the amount of electricity used by morphine-
Manufacturing facilities.
However, most LCA data is not measured directly, but is obtained from life cycle inventory calculated in many production sites, because direct measurement of all data makes most LCAs not feasible.
One example is all inputs and outputs related to 1 kwh power production from the brown coal mine mining to transmission.
In this study, the hierarchy of data sources is used in the following descending order :(1)
Data collected from poppy growers, Australia and Baxter, Australia ,(2)
LCI Database, Australia 30 and (3)EcoInvent V3 (European data).
31 modeling using SimaPro 8 LCA software (
PR é consultant, Amersfoort, Netherlands). In process-
Based on the LCA, when a single process produces multiple outputs, it is necessary to \"assign\" in order to assign the environmental impact to each output. ISO 14044 (4. 3. 4.
2 Distribution Procedures
29 the gradual process of dealing with multiple problems is given
Output process :(1)
Avoid distribution by dividing the process ,(2)
Will be based on actual relationships, such as large scale or (3)
Distribution through other relationships, such as financial value.
There are more than two
The production process of Morphine for the manufacture of Morphine: granulation of the production of poppy straw particles (for opiates)
And poppy seeds (for food)
As well as the process of producing concentrated opium poppy straw for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine.
We can\'t avoid distribution by dividing the process (
A single process of providing poppy straw and seeds).
In addition, physical relationships (mass)
The economic reality of why opium poppy cultivation was not captured.
Farmers grow opium poppy because of the content of opioid, Not poppy seeds
Pharmaceutical companies will not grow opium poppy to supply the food market.
Therefore, we follow step 3 of ISO 14044 and distribute it according to the financial value.
29 distribution of environmental impacts based on market value prices (
That is, the price/kg multiplied by the mass of kg)
For each output.
For each process, we calculated the weighted average based on the annual production data for 2012 and 2013, which was simulated in SimaPro.
All modelling includes an uncertainty value expressed as a lognormal probability distribution derived from a qualitative scoring system (
Genealogy matrix).
32. in a qualitative scoring system derived from the reliability, integrity and time and geographic proximity of the data, each input has uncertainties that are included in all major LCA databases
The final 95% CI of a process is based on random sampling of any position within 95% CIs for all inputs (
Monte Carlo analysis.
The Monte Carlo analysis of the LCA modeling software includes \"running\" of at least 1000 random samples to reduce the chance of unusual results.
The formula used for Impact Assessment is International (
Life cycle impact assessment)method.
33 the following impact categories (And their units)
Computing: climate change (g CO2 e);
Ozone consumption (
Kilograms of methyl chloride (CFC-11)equivalents);
Photooxidation (smog)formation (kg non-
Volatile organic compound equivalent of methane);
Ecological toxicity of human, terrestrial and marine (kg 1,4-
Equivalent to benzene).
Normalization is a method used to indicate the relative importance of the impact category;
We \"standardize\" The results of each impact category \"(
That is, divide our results by Australia\'s per capita e emissions in each category)
According to ISO 14044.
Normalization takes into account the potential impact of the National mix of electricity and fuel.
Australia\'s per capita carbon dioxide equivalent emissions are high, which seems to reduce the environmental impact of morphine production.
However, for example, morphine produced in the UK has less impact on climate change (CO2eq)
Made in Australia due to different power structures.
Compared to lower per capita emissions, the environmental impact is small and may be comparable to the percentage of normalization in Australia.
The Poppy crop supply supervisor collected data on the cultivation, granulation and transportation of opium Poppy cultivation and straw granulation.
We got all the data on poppy fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, tractor diesel use and irrigation wateryear period (2012 and 2013).
Road and domestic transport of opium poppy straw and international transport of chemicals to farms were also reviewed.
A large amount of morphine manufacturing data from manufacturing plants was obtained from several sources.
Yield of concentrated opium poppy straw (CPS)
This is a continuous process, but the final further manufacture of morphine sulfate is an intermittent process.
If a chemical is used only during CPS processes, a \"raw material display board\" that records the use of the chemical throughout the month is used \".
If chemicals are used in other processes, the data in the system used to control and monitor the flow of the process is used.
Details of chemical use/reuse (
Solvent included)
Water, including waste and sewage data, was obtained.
Morphine for technical use (
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)
And morphine sulfate, the exact chemical dosage was obtained through a separate batch table, which recorded all operating parameters, including the chemical input and the operating time and temperature.
We randomly selected 30 batches from 2012 and 2013 each year to calculate the average.
The GSK manufacturing plant monitors the power usage of a single device through the \"energy matrix\" computer system.
However, the final morphine production step is not linked to the energy matrix.
Therefore, we calculate the relevant power use by multiplying the energy rating of the relevant equipment by the corresponding operating time obtained from the batch table.
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging the Baxter Sydney plant did not produce morphine, but received morphine sulfate in bulk and packaged it as 100 mg morphine to make polypropylene (PVC)
100 mL sterile 0 for plastic bags. 9% saline.
In 2015, Baxter Australia disinfected morphine 32 000 bags of morphine for intravenous use.
Each PVC bag is packed in high
Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Plastic bags and cartons.
Box 1 indicates the regular stage in which morphine is produced from these sources.
Despite our repeated requests to the manufacturer, we were unable to obtain data on the environmental impact of the 10 mg glass anpou.
The first phase of morphine sulfate production in Australia (
All checked directly in this life cycle)
Occurs in the opium poppy planted in Tasmania, harvested and flown by air
Dry poppy straw transported by road in tazhou is sprayed and also used to produce poppy seeds for food industry pellets shipped to Melbourne, and then, on the way to the manufacturing plant of GSK aoccurring, the massiato produces concentrated poppy straws, morphine and codeine weighing 70-80%, extracted from granules by Oripavine and thebaine in five stages: concentrated poppy straw is purified by filtered water extraction, solvent extraction, alkali extraction precipitation, pH regulation separation
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)
Soluble impurities are eliminated by salt precipitation and then converted back to morphine basic technology morphine is washed and filtered to add dry cakesSulfuric acid to produce morphine sulfate (
Dry weight 98%)
Morphine Sulfate crystallizes, filters, dries and dries in Baxter, sydbulk bulk morphine sulfate obtained by Baxter, and sydmorphine sulfate mixed with 0.
9% of salt water, packed in PVC plastic bags, small bags and cartons.
Baxter Australia purchased a large amount of morphine that did not require further chemical modification.
Due to the contractual arrangement, the morphine received by Baxter Australia was not obtained directly from GSK. (
GSK did provide Baxter with a lot of morphine before. )
We obtained all aspects of Baxter\'s preparation of 100 mg of morphine in 100 bags.
The packaging of 100 mg morphine requires 16 grams of PVC as a closed plastic bag, 9 grams of high density polyethylene plastic as a packaging bag and 9 grams of carton (
48 morphine bags per 440g carton).
Baxter\'s factory in Sydney mainly produces intravenous infusion.
Compared to other related factory production lines, we assigned the relative quantity of mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging needed for morphine (eg, 0.
9% salt water 1 bag)
By comparing the output of each production line in 2015.
The mixing is to add a large amount of morphine to the heated stirred saline (0. 9% saline)in large vats.
Filling is a PVC plastic bag filled with an aqueous solution containing 100 mg of morphine.
Sterilization of these 100 mg morphine bags occurs in large steam sterilizer.
Most of the energy at Baxter\'s Sydney plant is produced on site by the natural gas production company (
Power, heating and cooling are provided).
Less plant power supplied from the New South Wales power grid (
Mainly from black coal).
Packaging related to 10 mg morphine glass anpou we have not found a manufacturer willing to provide 10 mg morphine glass anpou manufacturing information.
Nevertheless, we did weigh the packaging associated with this 10 mg morphine anpou at the Footscray Hospital.
The Poppy crop supply supervisor collected data on the cultivation, granulation and transportation of opium Poppy cultivation and straw granulation.
We got all the data on poppy fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, tractor diesel use and irrigation wateryear period (2012 and 2013).
Road and domestic transport of opium poppy straw and international transport of chemicals to farms were also reviewed.
A large amount of morphine manufacturing data from manufacturing plants was obtained from several sources.
Yield of concentrated opium poppy straw (CPS)
This is a continuous process, but the final further manufacture of morphine sulfate is an intermittent process.
If a chemical is used only during CPS processes, a \"raw material display board\" that records the use of the chemical throughout the month is used \".
If chemicals are used in other processes, the data in the system used to control and monitor the flow of the process is used.
Details of chemical use/reuse (
Solvent included)
Water, including waste and sewage data, was obtained.
Morphine for technical use (
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)
And morphine sulfate, the exact chemical dosage was obtained through a separate batch table, which recorded all operating parameters, including the chemical input and the operating time and temperature.
We randomly selected 30 batches from 2012 and 2013 each year to calculate the average.
The GSK manufacturing plant monitors the power usage of a single device through the \"energy matrix\" computer system.
However, the final morphine production step is not linked to the energy matrix.
Therefore, we calculate the relevant power use by multiplying the energy rating of the relevant equipment by the corresponding operating time obtained from the batch table.
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging the Baxter Sydney plant did not produce morphine, but received morphine sulfate in bulk and packaged it as 100 mg morphine to make polypropylene (PVC)
100 mL sterile 0 for plastic bags. 9% saline.
In 2015, Baxter Australia disinfected morphine 32 000 bags of morphine for intravenous use.
Each PVC bag is packed in high
Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Plastic bags and cartons.
Box 1 indicates the regular stage in which morphine is produced from these sources.
Despite our repeated requests to the manufacturer, we were unable to obtain data on the environmental impact of the 10 mg glass anpou.
The first phase of morphine sulfate production in Australia (
All checked directly in this life cycle)
Occurs in the opium poppy planted in Tasmania, harvested and flown by air
Dry poppy straw transported by road in tazhou is sprayed and also used to produce poppy seeds for food industry pellets shipped to Melbourne, and then, on the way to the manufacturing plant of GSK aoccurring, the massiato produces concentrated poppy straws, morphine and codeine weighing 70-80%, extracted from granules by Oripavine and thebaine in five stages: concentrated poppy straw is purified by filtered water extraction, solvent extraction, alkali extraction precipitation, pH regulation separation
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)
Soluble impurities are eliminated by salt precipitation and then converted back to morphine basic technology morphine is washed and filtered to add dry cakesSulfuric acid to produce morphine sulfate (
Dry weight 98%)
Morphine Sulfate crystallizes, filters, dries and dries in Baxter, sydbulk bulk morphine sulfate obtained by Baxter, and sydmorphine sulfate mixed with 0.
9% of salt water, packed in PVC plastic bags, small bags and cartons.
Baxter Australia purchased a large amount of morphine that did not require further chemical modification.
Due to the contractual arrangement, the morphine received by Baxter Australia was not obtained directly from GSK. (
GSK did provide Baxter with a lot of morphine before. )
We obtained all aspects of Baxter\'s preparation of 100 mg of morphine in 100 bags.
The packaging of 100 mg morphine requires 16 grams of PVC as a closed plastic bag, 9 grams of high density polyethylene plastic as a packaging bag and 9 grams of carton (
48 morphine bags per 440g carton).
Baxter\'s factory in Sydney mainly produces intravenous infusion.
Compared to other related factory production lines, we assigned the relative quantity of mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging needed for morphine (eg, 0.
9% salt water 1 bag)
By comparing the output of each production line in 2015.
The mixing is to add a large amount of morphine to the heated stirred saline (0. 9% saline)in large vats.
Filling is a PVC plastic bag filled with an aqueous solution containing 100 mg of morphine.
Sterilization of these 100 mg morphine bags occurs in large steam sterilizer.
Most of the energy at Baxter\'s Sydney plant is produced on site by the natural gas production company (
Power, heating and cooling are provided).
Less plant power supplied from the New South Wales power grid (
Mainly from black coal).
Packaging related to 10 mg morphine glass anpou we have not found a manufacturer willing to provide 10 mg morphine glass anpou manufacturing information.
Nevertheless, we did weigh the packaging associated with this 10 mg morphine anpou at the Footscray Hospital.
We finished a cradle-to-
LCA \'lca of morphine sulfate in opium poppy cultivation (
Fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation)
Large dose of morphine production for Poppy and disinfection and packaging for Baxter.
The environmental effects of the production of 100 mg of morphine were compared with the activity normally identified (
1 liter of gasoline burned).
In addition to carbon dioxide emissions, ozone consumption, and the use of water, the impact of burning 1 liter of gasoline on the environment is several orders of magnitude larger than that of producing 100 mg of morphine.
We focus on CO2 emissions and provide further information on other environmental impacts in the online supplementary form S1 with relevant documents.
Only the details of carbon dioxide emissions will be considered further.
Supplementary Table environmental impact assessment of 100 mg of morphine (in bulk form)
100 mg of morphine at final production (
Including disinfection and packaging)
In contrast, 1 liter of gasoline is burned. [bmjopen-2016-
013302sup_table. pdf]
The effect of producing 100 mg of morphine on climate change was 204g of CO2 (
95% CI 186 to 264g CO2).
Figure 2 shows the decomposition of the effects of climate change (Carbon dioxide emissions
According to the life cycle stage of morphine.
100 mg of bulk morphine (
Large amounts of morphine from poppy cultivation and granulation to GSK)
24 grams of carbon dioxide (
(12% of the total)
80g of carbon dioxide was produced during filling, mixing, sterilization and packaging (
(88% of the total).
The average Australian is responsible for 18 people.
3 tons of carbon dioxide per year and 34 tons indicate that the amount of morphine producing 204g of carbon dioxide is 0.
4% of Australia\'s per capita carbon dioxide emissions are equivalent to the carbon dioxide emissions of driving an average car.
35 download the impact of the new tabDownload figureOpen powerpointFigure2 greenhouse gas (g CO2 and %)
According to the life cycle of morphine (205g CO2 total).
Separate list of last steps in the process of morphine production (
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging)
It is shown that they are the most important contributors to the CO2 emissions of morphine.
The full contribution of the cultivation, grain cutting and transportation of opium poppy cultivation, grain cutting and bulk morphine manufacturing is 24 grams of carbon dioxide, accounting for 12% of the total carbon dioxide e (
95% CI 22 to 27g CO2 e).
Opium poppy cultivation contributes 6 grams of carbon dioxide, especially nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (3u2005g of CO2)
And agricultural machinery (2u2005g of CO2).
Diesel for agricultural machinery is much more important to carbon dioxide emissions than all other aspects of transportation.
Road, opium poppy straw domestic transport and international transport of chemicals contribute less than 0 to manufacturing facilities. 2u2005g of CO2.
Pelletising only added 0. 5u2005g of CO2.
Production of large doses of morphine in GSK
The manufacturing plant has increased carbon dioxide by 18 grams, mainly from electricity (9u2005g of CO2)and chemicals (
Solvent, acid and alkali, filter aid; 4u2005g of CO2)used.
At the GSK plant, carbon dioxide emissions from the production of concentrated opium poppy straw dominate (10u2005g of CO2)
Followed by morphine sulfate (4u2005g of CO2)
And technical morphine (
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)production (4u2005g of CO2).
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging the final process of morphine production (
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging)
Contributed 181/205 tons of carbon dioxide at Baxter\'s Sydney manufacturing plant (88%)
The total carbon dioxide footprint of morphine was 100 mg. Mixing (26u2005g of CO2), filling (16u2005g of CO2)
And disinfection (43u2005g of CO2)
85 mg of carbon dioxide was added to the 42% mg morphine bag, accounting for the total carbon dioxide (
95% CI 80 to 92g CO2eq).
The packaging of morphine contributes the most to CO2 emissions from any process, 95g of CO2, accounting for 46% of the total (
95% CI 82 to 15g CO2e).
If natural gas is used for heating/disinfection at Baxter\'s Sydney plant, the New South Wales power grid will be used for other energy needs, not for gas generation, CO2 e emissions from 100 mg morphine bags will be 228228g of CO2.
The packaging of 100 mg morphine requires 16g PVC as a closed plastic bag, 9g polyethylene bag and 9g carton.
Packaging related to 10 mg morphine glass anpou we estimate that the quality of packaging related to 10 mg morphine anpou is: a glass anpou (1. 9u2005g)
A plastic polypropylene tray (0. 6u2005g)
A piece of cardboard and paper (1. 8u2005g).
From the environmental impact of packaging alone, this contributes 6.
9 mg of CO2, that is, more than twice the CO2 e emissions of 10 mg bulk morphine (2.
1/10 tons of CO2 produced by 4 mg CO2 or 24 mg bulk morphine)itself.
The full contribution of the cultivation, grain cutting and transportation of opium poppy cultivation, grain cutting and bulk morphine manufacturing is 24 grams of carbon dioxide, accounting for 12% of the total carbon dioxide e (
95% CI 22 to 27g CO2 e).
Opium poppy cultivation contributes 6 grams of carbon dioxide, especially nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (3u2005g of CO2)
And agricultural machinery (2u2005g of CO2).
Diesel for agricultural machinery is much more important to carbon dioxide emissions than all other aspects of transportation.
Road, opium poppy straw domestic transport and international transport of chemicals contribute less than 0 to manufacturing facilities. 2u2005g of CO2.
Pelletising only added 0. 5u2005g of CO2.
Production of large doses of morphine in GSK
The manufacturing plant has increased carbon dioxide by 18 grams, mainly from electricity (9u2005g of CO2)and chemicals (
Solvent, acid and alkali, filter aid; 4u2005g of CO2)used.
At the GSK plant, carbon dioxide emissions from the production of concentrated opium poppy straw dominate (10u2005g of CO2)
Followed by morphine sulfate (4u2005g of CO2)
And technical morphine (
That is, 95% of morphine by dry weight)production (4u2005g of CO2).
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging the final process of morphine production (
Mixing, filling, sterilization and packaging)
Contributed 181/205 tons of carbon dioxide at Baxter\'s Sydney manufacturing plant (88%)
The total carbon dioxide footprint of morphine was 100 mg. Mixing (26u2005g of CO2), filling (16u2005g of CO2)
And disinfection (43u2005g of CO2)
85 mg of carbon dioxide was added to the 42% mg morphine bag, accounting for the total carbon dioxide (
95% CI 80 to 92g CO2eq).
The packaging of morphine contributes the most to CO2 emissions from any process, 95g of CO2, accounting for 46% of the total (
95% CI 82 to 15g CO2e).
If natural gas is used for heating/disinfection at Baxter\'s Sydney plant, the New South Wales power grid will be used for other energy needs, not for gas generation, CO2 e emissions from 100 mg morphine bags will be 228228g of CO2.
The packaging of 100 mg morphine requires 16g PVC as a closed plastic bag, 9g polyethylene bag and 9g carton.
Packaging related to 10 mg morphine glass anpou we estimate that the quality of packaging related to 10 mg morphine anpou is: a glass anpou (1. 9u2005g)
A plastic polypropylene tray (0. 6u2005g)
A piece of cardboard and paper (1. 8u2005g).
From the environmental impact of packaging alone, this contributes 6.
9 mg of CO2, that is, more than twice the CO2 e emissions of 10 mg bulk morphine (2.
1/10 tons of CO2 produced by 4 mg CO2 or 24 mg bulk morphine)itself.
We discussed the environmental impact of the production of morphine from opium poppy cultivation to final packaged drugs.
The environmental impact of producing 100 mg of morphine on climate change was 204g CO2 e.
In addition to ozone consumption, the other environmental impacts studied were much smaller than burning 1 liter of gasoline for car transport, although this was only 0.
Ozone of 04%
Consumption effect of average daily activity in Australia (
See online Supplement Table S1).
It is important that, at the final stage of production, almost 90% of the carbon footprint of morphine is produced;
Steam sterilization increased by a total of 20%, while packaging alone contributed nearly half.
The combined carbon footprint of opium poppy cultivation and mass morphine production is small (12%).
Comparison with non-previous research
Production of specific drugs for 36 chemicals (
Such as solvent, acid and alkali)
It has little effect on the carbon dioxide emissions of morphine.
To provide some perspective on our findings, the carbon footprint of producing 100 mg of morphine (204u2005g of CO2)
Similar to a disposable plastic anesthetic tray, 14 or an average of 1 kilometer driving an Australian car.
35 we consider what a country\'s more extensive \"carbon impact\" of morphine production on the environment is, but be careful that this consideration may be inaccurate due to the lack of reliable data.
It is estimated that the total demand for morphine in the UK in 2015 was 6498 mg/kg, of which 24 (
If it\'s completely intravenous
It will lead to emissions of 13 KBps 250 tonnes CO2 e.
Although this is an overestimate (
That is, oral morphine produces less carbon dioxide)
The carbon dioxide emissions produced by intravenous morphine are equivalent to the average annual use of 4400 vehicles in Australia.
35. The UK Department of Sustainable Development found that 20% of the UK\'s National Health Service\'s carbon footprint was due to drug production and use.
4 The input-output LCAs7 approach differs from our processbased LCA.
In essence, the input-output life cycle evaluation is based on financial transactions between economic sectors, calculating the carbon and other environmental impacts of each sector and associating it with the final financial value (eg, kgCO2/£).
In 2014, the uk nhs\'s morphine purchase cost accounted for 44 million of the UK\'s total drug purchases. 9 billion37 (
1/250 or 0. 4%).
No company is willing to provide us with data on morphine in 10 mg glass bottles.
Belboom et al. only studied the life cycle effect of injection drug packaging (
Not the drug itself)
It was found that a 1 ml glass medicine bottle filled with unidentified sterile drugs produced 65g of carbon dioxide, \"the main source of energy consumption is cleaning the glass medicine bottle assembly.
\"Study 38 using Belboom as an agent for the final preparation if our bulk morphine is 10 mg (
1/10 days of 24g CO2 = 2. 4u2005g CO2)
Filled in a glass bottle, the associated CO2 emissions will be 65g 2. 4u2005g=67.
4g CO2, 96% contribution for medicine bottles and final preparations, 4% contribution for bulk morphine sulfate.
Such a result is the same order of magnitude as our findings, but we need to explain it carefully.
Even if the environmental footprint of morphine is unusually low compared to other drugs, the final drug production phase and packaging may have the greatest environmental impact on most drugs.
There are few public studies on the life cycle of identifiable drugs.
The nearest cradleto-
Severe LCA of anesthetic gases by Sherman et al.
Check the drug using SciFinder39 (CAS web-
Chemistry Database of American Society of Chemistry)
Direct data is not available due to the manufacturer.
However, as the pharmaceutical manufacturing process develops from laboratory scale to full production, the route of drug synthesis changes and the environmental impact may change a lot.
21 Wernet et al. studied the whole synthesis of de-
Active drug components were identified and 68g CO2/g drugs were found to be produced during their life cycle.
The study of Wernet does not include the final sterilization process and packaging.
Our study found a large amount of morphine (
Disinfection and packaging are not included)
40 grams of carbon dioxide/gram of morphine were produced, much more than Wernet\'s unidentified drugs.
Although the processing process between different drugs may vary greatly, we should be cautious. Our cradle-to-
Gate LCA for all the processes needed to produce intravenous morphine found that CO2/g was the 2040g of the MSDS for CO2/g morphine.
Although the \"carbon dioxide intensity\" of morphine is much larger (per gram)
More CO2 e emissions than packaging, such packaging production 100-
Get more people involved.
Our research adds to concerns that packaging may significantly increase the life cycle impact of many hospital products.
40 we cannot estimate the environmental impact of oral morphine tablets, although 41 and packaging requirements are reduced due to less disinfection requirements, which may be less than intravenous preparations (
We do not include the environmental impact of the plastic \"give/drive).
According to our study, it is a challenge to determine the rapid and cheap improvement of the environmental impact of morphine production.
Recently, Victoria has implemented a wide range of water and energy reduction programs, saving 30 million liters of water per year through reuse and reducing power consumption by 30%.
In addition, Baxter Sydney\'s plant has been primarily sourced from natural gas power generation and supplemented by the New South Wales grid and the recently installed 500kw solar photovoltaic system.
Perhaps, since GSK and Baxter took action taking into account resource protection, we have underestimated the environmental impact of drug production.
However, even if Baxter Australia\'s energy is the natural gas and New South Wales grid, this will only reduce the carbon dioxide emissions associated with morphine by 15% mg.
However, due to the importance of disinfection and packaging, efforts to improve disinfection efficiency and reduce/recycle cardboard/plastic packaging are worth exploring (
Initiatives for recycling PVC plastics)
42, particularly in setting carbon reduction targets.
Our study of 100 mg of morphine in plastic bags shows that pharmaceutical companies\' \"confidential business\" concerns about LCA can be addressed through collaboration to obtain reliable public data.
Nevertheless, we were unable to obtain data for 10 mg sterile morphine anpou.
As clinical end users of drugs, we are not able to obtain information about the environmental impact of the drugs we give to patients, concerted advocacy efforts by medical schools and associations to request this information from pharmaceutical companies can help further research.
Compared to many other processes and items used in hospitals, the environmental footprint of 100 mg a bag of morphine is small, but it is still important to consider global drug use. Most (90%)
The carbon footprint of morphine comes from the later stages of production, especially packaging and disinfection.
Effects of interferon on the environment (
Another widely used opium)
In order to compare with morphine, an informed, \"Environment-sensitive\" drug selection needs to be started.
The relative environmental footprint of oral and intravenous drugs is also noteworthy.
Environmental impact of drug distribution, storage and use by clinicians (
Including syringe)
Hospital waste disposal also needs to be explored.
The pharmaceutical industry can reduce its carbon footprint by improving energy efficiency and using renewable energy.
Improvements in drug packaging and recycling are also needed.
Clinicians and government procurement agencies may have the right to obtain LCA data based on their environmental footprint to select drugs and other products.
Thanks to GSK and Australia for allowing access to their production sites for data collection, Mark Rhodes of gsk uk listened to his expert advice, simon Yin and Bradley Keem from Baxter Australia also provided assistance in data collection. Tim Bowser (of SunPharma), Tom Penny (
ERM Life Cycle Assessment)
And imogan tanison (
(UK Sustainable Development Unit)
Thoughtful comments were made.
The authors also thank Assistant Professor Craig French for his manuscript review.
Referee order D.
Health services and climate change: what can be done?
Health service Policy 2009; 14:2–4. doi:10. 1258/jhsrp. 2008.
Ryan S, Sherman J. full text 008147 OpenUrlFREE.
Continuous anesthesia.
Anesth Analg 2012; 114:921–3. doi:10. 1213/ANE.
0b013e31824fcea6openurlcross Web Science wide.
The role of SETAC in the development of LCA.
Life cycle assessment: 2006; 11:116–22.
OpenUrlWeb, Science and Sustainability Unit. UK NHS.
The carbon footprint of the British NHS 2013 is updated.
Sherman J. ekelman Jordan
The impact of the US health care system on the environment and on public health. PLoS ONE 2016; 11:e0157014. doi:10. 1371/journal. pone.
World Bank.
Total health expenditure (% of GDP)2014.
UK Sustainable Development Unit.
2012 guidelines for the Department of greenhouse gas accounting for pharmaceutical products and medical devices, November.
Morris DS, Wright T, Somner JE and others.
Carbon footprint of cataract surgery. Eye (Lond)2013; 27:495–501. doi:10. 1038/eye. 2013.
9 openurlcampion N, Thiel CL, DeBlois J, et al.
Life cycle assessment of having children in the United States.
Environ 2012, total Sci; 425:191–8. doi:10. 1016/j. scitotenv. 2012. 03.
006 openurlpubmedthiel CL, Eckelman MJ, Guido R, etc.
Environmental impact of surgical procedures: Life cycle assessment of US uterine resection.
Environmental Science 201549:1779–86. doi:10.
1021/es50rmb gopenurl wikiwoods DL, McAndrew T, Nevadunsky N, etc.
Carbon footprint of robots
Comparison of assisted laparoscopic, laparoscopic and Caesarean section surgery.
Robot 2015; 11:406–12. doi:10. 1002/rcs.
1640OpenUrl vetdettenkofer mi, Griesshammer R, sheremm et al. Life-
Single Cycle Assessment-
Compared to reusable surgical curtains (
Cellulose/polyethylene-
Mixed cotton). Chirurg 1999; 70:485.
Miller A. OpenUrlPubMedWeb of science
Use of Life cycle evaluation-
Turn thinking into decision making
Made to buy medical equipment at the NHS.
Manag 2000, policy on environmental assessment; 2:453–76.
The building of OpenUrl Mai McGain can be traced back to McGain A and so on.
Reusable and single financial and environmental costs
Use plastic anesthesia tray.
Intensive care of Anaesth 2010; 38:538–44.
Scientific OpenUrlPubMedWeb ececkelman M, Mosher M, Gonzalez A, etc.
Comparative Life cycle assessment of the airway of disposable and reusable throat masks.
Anesth Analg 2012; 114:1067–72.
Scientific openurlcross pubpubmedweb sherman J, Le C, Lamers V, etc.
Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from narcotic drugs.
Anesth Analg 2012; 114:1086–90.
OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWeb Science by Jim énez-
Mr. Gonzalez, too much cash.
Evolution of Life Cycle Assessment in drug and chemical applicationsa perspective.
Green Chemical 201416:3392–400. Jimenez Hotel-
Gonzalez C. , Curzons AD, Constable DJ. Cradle-to-
List and evaluation of the door life cycle of pharmaceutical compounds.
Life cycle assessment: 2004; 9:114–21.
Raymond Jordan, Slater CS, saverski Jordan.
LCA method for solvent waste problem analysis in pharmaceutical industry.
Green Chemical 201012:1826–34.
OpenUrl shopde Soete, Debaveye S, De Meester S, etc.
Environmental sustainability assessment of drugs: new needs for simplified life cycle assessment.
Environmental Science 201448:12247–55.
Openurlwerwernet G, Conradt S, Isenring HP, etc.
Life cycle evaluation of fine chemical production: taking pharmaceutical synthesis as an example.
Life cycle assessment: 2010; 15:294–303.
OpenUrlCrossRef archiwho.
WHO Model List of essential drugs. 18th list (
Final amendment, April 2013October 2013). 2013.
Australian and New Zealand College of anesthesiology and school of medicine for pain.
Management of acute pain: scientific evidence.
Australian Government, National Commission for Health and Medical Research, 2010.
United Nations International Narcotics Control Bureau 2014. Narcotic Drugs.
Estimates of World requirements for 2015 and statistics for 2013.
Friderichs E, Christoph T, Buschmann H.
A pain relief agent that concentrates.
Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry in Ulman. Wiley-
VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2000.
Viknovak BH Hudlicky T, JW, Reed, etc.
Synthesis and biological synthesis of morphinean update.
Curr Org Chung 2000; 4:343–62.
OpenUrl gravity Stocker TF, piano, prattner gravityK, et al. IPCC (
Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change).
Climate Change 2013: the basis of physical science.
Medium: Stoke TF, piano, Plattner gravityK, et al. , eds.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change.
Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, United States of America: Cambridge University Press, 20:1535. ↵GSK Australia.
A parting gift from GSK to the local community 2015
International Standards Organization. ISO-14040. 2006. —
Iso: std: iso: 14040: ed-2:v1:en↵ALCAS.
Australian Society for life cycle assessment.
Australia life cycle inventory database program 2016.
Center for Ecological invention. Ecoinvent—
The world\'s most consistent and transparent lifecycle inventory database. 2015. ↵Weidema BP. Multi-
User testing of product life cycle inventory data quality matrix.
Life cycle assessment: 1998; 3:259–65.
OpenUrl ↵ Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Huijbregts M et al.
Formula 2008 2009Method.
Department of Energy.
CDIAC, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, carbon dioxide emissions by country, Australia, 2016.
National Transportation Council of Australia
New cars in Australia emit 2012 of carbon dioxide. March 2013.
Henderson Leck from jimennis
Police DJ Gonzalez C and others.
Expand GSK\'s solvent selection guidelines-embed sustainability into solvent selection starting with medicinal chemistry.
Green Chemical 201113:854–62.
Information Center for Health and social care.
Cost Analysis of prescription in UK
Published in April 8.
Alimbelboom S, Renzoni R, Verjans B, etc.
Life cycle assessment of primary packaging of injectable drugs: Comparison of traditional processes in glass vials with closed vial techniques (polymer vials).
Life cycle assessment: 2011; 16:159–67.
American Society of Chemistry. Products. SciFinder.
Choice of chemical research. 2015.
Story D, Kayak E, etc.
Sustainability in the workplace: the \"cradle-to-grave\" view of what we do.
Anesth Analg 2012; 114:1134–9.
Regulators of medicines and health products.
British PharmacopoeiaAppendix XVI D.
Non-microbial quality
Sterile preparations and substances for drugs. 2016.
Australian Vinyl Council.
PVC recycling Hospital, 2013.
Thompson T. Frith K. et al.
Sustainable medical care.
Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Willie, 2013.
Footnotescontriators FMG conceived the study, received funding, was assisted in methods and results, wrote and revised the manuscript, and agreed to all of the work involved
SMA is useful for research design and is the main author of the development method and the results obtained.
SMA also carried out rote memorization of manuscripts and modifications.
YO obtained the data and assisted in drafting the work and approved the final manuscript version.
EN assists in funding, data acquisition, analysis and interpretation, and the preparation and approval of the manuscript for the final manuscript.
KH contributed to the conception of the work and assisted in funding, Method Design and manuscript preparation.
PM assist in obtaining data and analysis, revise the manuscript and approve the final manuscript version.
DS assists in the submission of grant funds, data analysis and interpretation of work, modifies the manuscript and approves the final manuscript version.
The Australian and New Zealand College of Anesthesiology provided financial support for the study (ANZCA)grant 2014.
YO Australia provides additional support for YO\'s che46 4 comprehensive industrial program scholarship.
All authors and GSK have signed an agreement of prior secrecy requiring that no exact details of any particular physical or chemical process be disclosed in the public domain, GSK cannot delay/block any manuscript submission within a reasonable time frame.
A similar informal agreement was also reached with Baxter, Australia, to allow non-member states to submit manuscripts in a timely manner
Co-author of the industry.
On September 1, 2015, Glaxo sold its opium facility in Australia to Sun Pharma.
Prior to this sale, GSK stopped production of morphine sulfate but continued to reduce production
Morphine for refined technology (
Pure dry weight 95%).
We have been using the word \"sk\" in the manuscript because they are the companies involved in the study.
Competing interests FMG received research grants and gratuities from ANZCA, SMA received research grants and gratuities from ANZCA, YO received research grants and gratuities from GSK Australia, working in GSK, Australia, now working in SunPharma, KH received research grants and gratuities from GSK, Australia, and DS received research grants and gratuities from ANZCA and PM works, Australia.
Uncommissioned source and peer review;
External peer review.
Due to the confidential nature of the original source data, the data sharing statement data will not be available (
Preparation of morphine).
Custom message
Chat Online 编辑模式下无法使用
Chat Online inputting...