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ronald reagan\'s shameful legacy: violence, the homeless, mental illness
Republicans control the Senate (53 to 46)
This is the first time they have dominated these two chambers since 1954.
Although the house is still under Democratic control (243 to 192)
In fact, their advantage is much smaller because many of the South\'s \"boll weeville\" Democrats voted with Republicans.
A month before the election, President Carter signed the mental health system Act, which proposes to continue the federal Community Mental Health Center program, despite some additional state involvement.
According to the report of the Carter Commission, the Act also includes a federal grant provision, \"programs for the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of positive mental health, \"it shows that there is very little learning among members and professionals of the Carter committee in NIMH.
With President Reagan and Republicans taking over, the mental health system bill was discarded before the ink dried, and the CMHC fund was simply frozen to the States.
The CMHC project is not only dead but also buried.
The autopsy may list the cause of death as naive and complicated by pompous.
President Reagan never knew about mental illness.
Like Richard Nixon, he is a product of Southern California culture that links psychiatry with communism.
Two months after taking office, Reagan was shot dead by John Hinkley, a young man with uncured splitting.
Two years later, Reagan gave
Roger Peel, St. at the time.
Hinkley is in the treatment of Elizabeth Hospital and is trying to arrange a meeting with Hinkley so that Reagan can forgive him.
Peel told the president tactfully that it was not a good idea.
Reagan also exposed the consequences of untreated mental illness through his personal tax advisor, Roy Miller\'s two sons.
Both sons were mentally divided.
One of them committed suicide on 1981 and the other killed his mother on 1983.
Despite such personal experience, Reagan never showed any interest in research or better treatment of serious mental illness.
* California has always been at the forefront of American cultural development, and Anaheim and modstow have experienced changes before Atlanta and Maureen.
The same is true of the large outflow of patients from the national psychiatric hospital.
Since the end of 1950, California has become a national leader in actively moving patients from state hospitals to nursing homes and boardsand-
In other states, nursing homes are known for the names of group residential, residential, adult nursing homes, family nursing homes, assisted living facilities, community residential facilities, adult foster families, etc, transitional living facilities and residential care facilities are provided.
The hospital ward was closed when the patient left.
By 1967, when Ronald Reagan became governor, California had removed more than half of its state hospital patients.
In the same year, California passed the landmark lights-Petris-Short (LPS)
In addition to the extreme, the Act effectively abolished involuntary residency.
So by the beginning of 1970, California had transferred most mental illness patients from state hospitals and passed LPS if they had relapsed and needed additional care, it\'s hard to get them back to the hospital.
California has thus become a canary in non-institutional coal mines.
The results soon became apparent.
According to a study by the California commission, back in 1969and-
The nursing home describes them as follows: The study was done by Richard Lamb, a young psychiatrist working for San Mateo County;
Over the past few years, he has remained the leading American psychiatrist to point out non-institutional failures. By 1975 board-and-
Nursing homes have become a big business in California.
In Los Angeles alone, there are \"about 11,000state-
Hospital patients living on boardand-Nursing facilities.
\"Many of these houses are owned by --
Profit chains, such as Beverly Enterprises with 38 housing units.
Many families are seen by owners as \"pure business, squeezing out too much profit from it at the expense of residents.
\"Five members of Beverly\'s corporate board of directors are in contact with Governor Reagan;
The president is vice president of Reagan\'s fundraising dinner, \"the other four are either politically active in one or two of Reagan\'s [s]gubernatorial]
The campaign and/or the donation of large or undisclosed amounts to the campaign.
\"The financial connection between the governor who is emptying state hospitals and the businessmen who are making profits from the process will soon be revealed in other states.
Many board membersand-
Like other places, California\'s nursing homes gather in dilapidated urban areas, so rents are low.
In San Jose, for example, about 1,800 patients discharged from the nearby Agnews State Hospital were placed at their homes near the San Jose State University campus.
As early as 1971, local newspapers condemned the \"mass invasion of mental patients.
Some patients left their board. and-
Nursing homes were expelled due to poor living conditions, while others were expelled when their symptoms of the disease recurred because they were not treated with medication, but both cases resulted in homelessness.
1973 of the San Jose region is described as \"discharged patients \". . .
Live in a slum. . .
Wandering aimlessly in the street. .
Slums for mentally ill and mentally retarded people.
\"Similar communities are becoming more visible in other cities in California and New York.
In Long Beach, Long Island, old motels and restaurants are packed with patients discharged from almost Creedmore and Pilgrim State Hospital.
By 1973, community residents complained that their town had become a mental ward;
At the local Catholic church, it is said that the patient \"urinated on the floor during mass and ate the flowers on the altar.
As a result, the Long Beach City Council has passed a regulation requiring patients to use their prescription drugs as a condition for living there.
It is foreseeable that the New York Civil Liberties Union immediately challenged the regulation, arguing that it was not constitutional and was so determined.
By this time, there are about 5,000 planks. and-
Some of the 285-bed nursing homes in New York City, up to 85% of residents, have been discharged from state hospitals.
As a psychiatrist in New York concluded: \"The life and care trajectory of this chronic mental patient has moved from a bad institution to multiple bad institutions.
\"California is the first state to witness not only an increase in non-institutional-related homelessness, but also an increase in imprisonment and violence.
In 1972, another young psychiatrist working for San Mateo County, Mark abreson, issued a landmark paper entitled \"conviction of mental illness behavior.
Abrams claims that because the new LPS regulations make it difficult for patients to be sent to a psychiatric hospital, the police \"believe that arrest and imprisonment are a more reliable way to ensure involuntary detention of mentally ill patients.
Abramson quoted a California prison psychiatrist as claiming that he was \"really drowned in a patient \". . . .
More men with serious mental problems were sent to prison.
\"For the first time, Abramson\'s paper clearly describes the increase in mental illness in prisons and prisons, which will increase significantly in subsequent years. By the mid-
1970. studies in some states show that about 5% of prisoners suffer from severe mental illness.
A survey of five prisons in California shows that,
7% of the prisoners were mentally ill.
A study at the Denver County prison reported that 5% of the prisoners had \"functional mental illness \".
\"These figures are in contrast to studies of 1930 people, which report that less than 2% of prison inmates suffer from severe mental illness.
In 1973, the prison in Santa Clara County, including San Jose, \"created a special ward. . .
To accommodate only individuals with such mental conditions \";
This is clearly the first county prison to create a special unit of mental illness.
Given the medium term, there are more and more serious mental illness patients living in the California community
1970, it is not surprising to find that they are affecting the task of the police.
A study of 1975 patients discharged from Napa State Hospital from 1972 to 301 found that 41% of them were arrested.
According to the study, \"patients who entered the hospital without criminal records were subsequently arrested about three times as many as ordinary citizens.
\"It is important that most of these patients do not receive any aftercare after discharge.
By this time, police in other states have also begun to feel the burden on patients with mental illness who have been discharged but are usually not treated.
In suburban Philadelphia, for example, \"spirit-illness-
Related incidents increased by 227.
6% from 1975 to 1979, the number of felony cases increased by only 5. 6%.
\"Among the omens of all the non-institutional failures exhibited in California in 1970, the most frightening is the killings and other violent incidents committed by untreated mental patients.
Such killings were widely publicized.
Many believe these tragedies are linked to California\'s efforts to close state hospitals and the new LPS law, which makes involuntary treatment almost impossible.
The jury\'s foreman convicted Herbert mulling of murder, and he was charged with murder, reflecting the sentiments of many, when he publicly stated: in response to inquiries about the murder, the California Department of Mental Health has a deputy director, doctor.
Andrew Robertson testified in a state law investigation on 1973.
His testimony must be in all of it.
One of the most unsuccessful attempts by a public official to try to reassure the public: 1980 years old: These problems did not become national until 1980 years old, in the United States, most people do not know that it is very wrong for patients in the national psychiatric hospital to be non-institutional.
Some people realize that murder and other unpleasant things are happening in California, but this kind of thing can be expected because, after all, California is like this.
President Carter\'s mental health committee released a 1978 report and suggested doing more of the same --
More CMHCs, more mental disease prevention and more federal spending.
The report shows no immediate crisis.
Most of the patients discharged from public hospitals in the 1960 and 1970 s went to their homes, nursing homes or boards --and-care homes;
So they can\'t see or see.
It all changed in the 1980 s.
Non-institution has become a topic of national concern for the first time.
A 1981-issue editorial in The New York Times heralds the beginning of the discussion, which calls non-institutional \"a cruel embarrassment, a serious wrong reform.
Three years later, the newspaper added: \"The policy that led to the release of mental patients from hospitals to communities in most countries is now widely regarded as a major failure.
\"Over the next decade, more and more people have openly expressed concern about the psychiatric patients in nursing homes. and-
Take care of families, prisons and prisons.
In addition, there are also some media releases high on a regular basis.
It is clearly a murder committed by a mentally ill individual.
However, one of the problems at the center of the 1980 s was the problem of mentally ill homeless people and directed public attention towards non-institutional.
Over the past 1980 years, the state psychiatric hospital has closed another 40,000 beds.
The patients sent to the community facilities are no longer those who are moderately healthy.
Functional or elderly;
Instead, they include more difficult chronic patients from the post-hospital ward.
These patients are usually younger than patients who were previously discharged from hospital, less likely to respond to the drug, and less likely to be aware of their need for the drug.
National Institute of Mental Health, 1988 (NIMH)
Estimates of the residence of patients with chronic mental illness were released.
Some 120,000 people are said to still be hospitalized;
There are 381,000 nursing homes;
Between 175,000 and 300,000 people live on board. and-care homes;
Between 125,000 and 300,000 people are considered homeless.
These broad estimates of people living on the boardand-
People in nursing homes and on the streets think NIMH and others don\'t know how many people there are.
At a hearing of the Senate Committee on Ageing on 1974, abuse of mentally ill patients initially attracted public attention.
These hearings describe the fact that nursing homes actually bid on patients in an attempt to benefit those most easily managed;
The nursing home pays a $100 bonus to each patient of a hospital psychiatrist;
And the high profits of nursing homes.
As a result of this hearing and 1986 study of nursing homes by the Institute of Medicine, Congress passed a legislation in 1987 requiring all Medicaid
Funded nursing homes screen new admission cases to prevent patients who are not eligible for admission due to lack of skilled care. Follow-
Up studies have shown that screening tasks have little impact on admission policies or abuse.
Abused mentally ill on boardand-
Nursing home also appears regularly at this time: sociologist Andrew Skal summed up the economics of the board of directors in 1981 --and-
The care industry: \"The logic of the market is enough to ensure that operators have sufficient motivation to store expenses as cheaply as possible, as profits are inversely proportional to the amount spent on prisoners.
Also, because many boardsand-
Nursing Home in crime-
Mentally ill people living there often suffer when they go out.
A total of 1984 studies for 278 boarding patientsand-
According to a nursing home in Los Angeles,
The third \"report was robbed and/or attacked in the previous year.
\"The problem of mental illness patients in nursing homes and boards --and-
In the 1980 s, nursing homes attracted little media attention.
In contrast, the problem of homeless people, including mentally ill homeless people, has become a major problem.
In Washington, Mitch Snyder and the National League of homeless people took the national stage by hunger strike and sleeping.
Ins on the sidewalk made a harsh sound.
Their message is that homeless people, like you and I, only need a house and a job.
Snyder questioned President Reagan, accusing him of being the main cause of homelessness, a controversy widely reported in the media.
By the time Snyder committed suicide in 1990, homelessness had become a major topic of national discussion.
Despite claims by homeless advocates, the media\'s focus on homeless people is becoming increasingly clear that many of them actually suffer from serious mental illness.
\"Life\" magazine published a story in the 1981 Journal called \"empty mad homes: Mental illness becomes the lost soul of our city.
On 1982, Rebecca Smith froze to death in a cardboard box on the streets of New York.
The media focused on her death because it was said that she had made a farewell in her college class before she was mentally ill.
In 1983, the media reported the story of the former all-Lionel
The professional guard of the Green Bay Packers team;
After suffering from mental division, he was homeless on the streets of Milwaukee for several years.
In 1984, a study in Boston reported that 38% of homeless people in Boston suffered from severe mental illness.
The report is titled \"homelessness is a mental health problem\" and confirms the growing suspicion of the problem --
Many homeless people used to be patients in the national psychiatric hospital. By the mid-
In their 1980 s, there was a consensus that the total number of homeless people was increasing.
The possible reason for this growth has become political football, but the failure of the mental health system is an option widely discussed.
A 1985 report from Los Angeles estimates that between 30% and 50% of homeless people suffer from severe mental illness and are \"growing \".
The conclusion of this study is that this \"is partly a product of a non-institutional movement \". . . .
This \"street\" has become the \"asylums\" after 80 s \".
Joyce Brown appeared on the streets of New York in 1986, adding new content to the national dialogue.
Prior to living in the steam stove row on the corner of East 65 Street and Second Avenue, Brown was Secretary for 10 years.
Later, she was mentally ill, hospitalized and discharged from hospital.
While living on the street, someone saw Brown urinating on the sidewalk, defecating in the ditch, tearing away the money that passers-by had given her, and then hitting the vehicle.
Ed Koch, the mayor of New York, ordered her to be involuntarily hospitalized because she knew that Civil Liberties Union lawyers would challenge the case.
Koch\'s statement reflects the sentiment of many: \"If a madman wants to sue me, they have the right to sue and I have the right to sue a madman. . .
Talk about people who say \"No, you don\'t have the right to intervene to help.
\"Civil liberties lawyers have the upper hand, and mental illness and homeless civil rights have therefore added another legal challenge to the ongoing homeless debate.
By the end of 1980, the root causes of a growing number of psychiatric homeless people had become very clear.
A study of 187 patients discharged from the Massachusetts Metropolitan State Hospital showed that 27% people were homeless.
A study of 132 patients discharged from Columbus State Hospital, Ohio, reported that 36% people were homeless.
On 1989, when a San Francisco television station wanted to promote its series on homelessness, it posted posters around the city saying: \"You are now walking in the latest mental hospital in the United States.
Psychiatrist Richard Lamb added: \"Perhaps there is nothing more vivid about the non-institutional problem than the shameful and incredible phenomenon of homeless mental patients.
\"* Mental homelessness is becoming a national concern during 1980, while the number of mental illnesses in prisons and prisons is also increasing.
The 1989 review of existing studies concluded that \"the prevalence of major mental illness. . . [
In prison and in prison.
Growth has been slow and has gradually increased over the past 20 years and may continue to increase.
The ratio of various research reports from 6% (Virginia)and 8% (New York)to 10% (
Oakland and California)and 11% (
Michigan and Pennsylvania).
1990. The national survey concluded that the comparison of 10% and the prevalence estimate of 5% have been generally considered a decade ago.
Disturbing trends are evident in various studies.
Of the 132 patients discharged from Columbus State Hospital in Ohio, 17% were arrested within six months.
In California, serious mental patients with a history of violence in the past, including armed robbery and murder, were discharged from a psychiatric hospital without any planned aftercare.
In 1984, in Colorado, George Wooton, who was diagnosed with mental division, was sentenced to hundreds of times in prison;
He will be the first outstanding member of a group widely known as \"regulars.
\"In several states, the strange behavior of mentally ill prisoners has also become a problem for prison personnel;
In Montana, a man \"tried to drown in a prison toilet,\" and in California, the prisoner tried to run away, \"smeared himself with his own feces and washed himself into the toilet.
To make matters worse, civil liberties lawyers often defend the rights of mentally ill prisoners to refuse medication and to maintain mental illness.
For example, at the 1985 commitment hearing in Wisconsin, a public defense lawyer argued that the mentally ill he was imprisoned was observed to be eating feces, \"There is no imminent danger of personal injury or death\" and should therefore be released;
The judge agreed.
As more people with mental illness entered the criminal justice system in the 1980 s, the local police and security services were increasingly affected.
In New York City, the number of calls related to \"emotionally disturbed people\" known as \"EDPs\" increased from 20,843 in 1980 to 46,845 in 1988, experts said, similar growth has occurred in other big cities.
\"Many of these calls require a significant deployment of police resources.
For example, the rescue of a mentally ill man from the top of a tower on Staten Island \"requires at least 20 police and supervisors, six emergency vehicles, several highway units and a helicopter.
\"In response to these psychiatric emergencies, the police department in Memphis, Tennessee, set up the first specially trained police crisis intervention team, the CIT, in 1988, because it was replicated in other cities, so it will be called.
* Finally, 1980 people have witnessed an increasing number of violent incidents, including murder, which have been committed by mentally ill persons without treatment.
The decade began at three highs.
Shooting between March 1980 and March 1981.
Former congressman Allard Lowenstein was killed by Dennis Sweni, John Lennon was killed by Mark David Chapman, and President Ronald Reagan was shot and killed by John Hinkley.
None of the three perpetrators have ever treated mental division.
Sweni, for example, believes that his former mentor, loweinstein, had implanted a transmitter into his teeth, through which he could make a sound of harassment.
With the development of the decade, this well-known killing has become more and more common: another sign that this violence is increasing is a study that will be admitted to the New York State Psychiatric Hospital in 1975 and 1982
It reported that \"in the 1982 cohort, the proportion of patients living in the community who committed violence against others was almost twice that of the 1975 cohort.
In addition, \"in the 1982 cohort, the percentage of patients who had contact with the criminal justice system was more than four times the percentage in the 1975 cohort.
\"Is there a way to estimate the frequency of these violent incidents being implemented by mentally ill patients who are not treated, at that time and in the future, and there is no national database that can track the killings of mentally ill patients.
However, a small study published in 1988 provided clues.
In contrakosta County, California, all 71 homicide cases occurred between 1978 and 1980 were reviewed.
Of the 71 killings, 7 were committed by people with mental Division who were all hospitalized at some point before the crime.
The proportion of 10% is also consistent with the results of another small study in Albany County, New York.
Thus, by the end of the 1980 s, violence committed by untreated mental patients appeared to be one of the consequences of the non-institutional movement, and the problem seemed to be growing.
Excerpt from \"mental illness in the United States: How the federal government destroys the psychiatric treatment system\"
Fuller Torrey is licensed by University Press Florida, USA.
Copyright 2014 E. Fuller Torrey.