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feasibility of working with a wholesale supplier to co-design and test acceptability of an intervention to promote smaller portions: an uncontrolled before-and-after study in british fish & chip shops

by:SWIFT     2019-12-04
Objective to explore the feasibility of cooperation with wholesale suppliers
Design and deliver interventions and evaluate their acceptability to promote smaller parts of the fish and chips store.
Previously uncontrolled designand-after study.
Set up a fish and chips shop in northern England, 2016.
Participating owners (n=11)
Manager and client (n=46)
Fish and chips shop;
And intervenors (n=3).
Intervention supplierled, three-
Conduct one-hour contact activities with the owner and manager, emphasizing the problem of excessive weight and potential ways to reduce the weight;
Box packaging is provided to provide services for smaller parts;
Posters and business rewards.
-Data collection
Store observation and sales data collected at baseline and after intervention.
Exit Survey with customers.
Conduct semi-structured interviews with owners/managers and intervention providers.
As a result, 12 fish and chips shops were recruited.
Observation data were collected from eight stores: at baseline, six stores did not promote the supply of small portions of food; at follow-
Eight did it, and five showed posters.
Seven of the 12 stores provided sales data, and all reported that sales of small meals increased after the intervention.
Of the 46 customers surveyed: 28% did not know if there was a smaller portion of the meal;
20% of people bought small portions of food;
46% people who have not bought these foods are interested in trying them in the future.
Interviews show that the owner/manager believes this intervention is acceptable, but hopes to have a clearer definition of a smaller meal;
Experience of suppliers attaching importance to co-intervention
They see this intervention as consistent with their responsibility to drive innovation.
Conclusion common
The design of the intervention with the supplier is feasible.
This partnership facilitates the implementation of interventions acceptable to owners and customers.
The sale of small food packaging shows that the promotion of this food is feasible and may be sustainable.
Objective to explore the feasibility of cooperation with wholesale suppliers
Design and deliver interventions and evaluate their acceptability to promote smaller parts of the fish and chips store.
Previously uncontrolled designand-after study.
Set up a fish and chips shop in northern England, 2016.
Participating owners (n=11)
Manager and client (n=46)
Fish and chips shop;
And intervenors (n=3).
Intervention supplierled, three-
Conduct one-hour contact activities with the owner and manager, emphasizing the problem of excessive weight and potential ways to reduce the weight;
Box packaging is provided to provide services for smaller parts;
Posters and business rewards.
-Data collection
Store observation and sales data collected at baseline and after intervention.
Exit Survey with customers.
Conduct semi-structured interviews with owners/managers and intervention providers.
As a result, 12 fish and chips shops were recruited.
Observation data were collected from eight stores: at baseline, six stores did not promote the supply of small portions of food; at follow-
Eight did it, and five showed posters.
Seven of the 12 stores provided sales data, and all reported that sales of small meals increased after the intervention.
Of the 46 customers surveyed: 28% did not know if there was a smaller portion of the meal;
20% of people bought small portions of food;
46% people who have not bought these foods are interested in trying them in the future.
Interviews show that the owner/manager believes this intervention is acceptable, but hopes to have a clearer definition of a smaller meal;
Experience of suppliers attaching importance to co-intervention
They see this intervention as consistent with their responsibility to drive innovation.
Conclusion common
The design of the intervention with the supplier is feasible.
This partnership facilitates the implementation of interventions acceptable to owners and customers.
The sale of small food packaging shows that the promotion of this food is feasible and may be sustainable.
Takeout and fast food, especially takeout and fast food from independent enterprises, were found to provide too much energy through large portions and high calories
Energy consumption is a major concern of public health.
3 Our previous work found that adults and children who eat at least takeout meals per week spend 63-87 kilocalories and 55-168 kilocalories per day, which are less than those who eat takeout meals.
4 consumption of high takeout meals is related to weight gain and diet
Related Diseases
6 in the UK, \"fish and chips\" are culturally embedded and 7 are estimated to have 10 stores nationwide.
Typical fish and chips restaurant meals include white fish in the batter and fried broken potatoes.
A survey found that the average energy content of 64 fish and chips was 1658 kilocalories, one representing 79% of women and 64% of men\'s estimated average daily energy demand.
This shows that reducing the weight may be a means to promote the health of the population.
11-14 due to the limited number of wholesale suppliers used in most stores, these suppliers have a great impact on the food provided by independent hot food takeout.
While working with suppliers provides an opportunity for intervention, limited research has become the only opportunity so far.
16 The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of working with wholesale suppliers
Design and provide interventions to promote smaller portions of meals in fish and chips shops in northern England;
And the acceptability of this intervention to the owner/manager and their customers.
This is not a process or a result evaluation study.
Co-intervention
We are with Henry Colbeck Limited (HC)
An independent wholesaler of fish and chips stores, which offers more than 2500 stores in northern England and Scotland, 18 of whom in the partnership offer more than 6000 stores in the UK.
We asked HC if they would work with us.
Design and lead interventions to encourage fish and chips shops to improve partial controls and promote smaller portions of meals.
The members of the research team and HC staff listed their respective positions and terms of cooperation, including: HC-
Responsibility for intervention development and intervention delivery (Including fees)
And data sharing;
For the research team
Responsible for research design and coordination of data collection, independence of analysis and the right to publish findings.
We discussed with HC the results of our previous study on independent take-out 4 19-23, and in turn, they shared their knowledge, detailing the meal packaging options currently used: boxes, trays
It has been confirmed that the whole industry has a large part of the size of the meal, mainly driven by high competition and the desire to provide value to customersfor-money’.
We agreed.
The focus of promoting and facilitating intervention: better partial control, supported by the use of standardized partial-sized box packaging (
Especially compared with paper packaging);
Actively promote small meals.
We agree that the implementation of the intervention should not bring direct costs to the participating fish and chips stores, and that HC should primarily promote the size to the owner/manager regarding the partial controls and the potential financial benefits of the smaller portion.
HC recruited two owners with a smaller portion meal promotion to support them in providing intervention services detailing their practical experience and economic benefits.
The research team conducted a detailed theoretical analysis of the intervention (
Supplementary Documents Online).
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp1. pdf]
Intervention description research team supports three HC development
One-hour engagement at a hotel in North April 2016East England.
HC invited the owner, manager and their staff of the fish and chips shop to attend.
The plan includes a meeting between HC and two owners of fish and chips, followed by a question and discussion meeting.
Owners/managers are encouraged to place more emphasis on partial control by using box packaging and to actively promote smaller portions of meals.
Potential economic benefits to attract a wider customer base and reduce partial size
The whole process highlighted the pro-rata reduction in fee prices such as increased trade and increased meal margins.
Shows a range to participants (
According to size and material)
Smaller part of the box, but the selected package is made by the owner/manager.
Intensive Action-
The planning activities developed by the research team include a goal --setting form (
Supplementary Documents Online B).
24 This includes a \"public square\" where the owner/manager of fish and chips details what changes they will make, how and when they will be delivered, and their confidence in delivery.
Owners/managers are encouraged to comply with these commitments.
We completed the template for the intervention description and replication (TIDieR)checklist25 (
Supplementary documents online C).
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp2. pdf]
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp3. pdf]
After the engagement, the owner/manager got one of two different 0 size posters to promote smaller meals for their store (figure 1).
These were delivered to the store within 16 days.
HC suggestion can be in-
Shop, another one for passers-by to seeby.
The additional rewards offered by HC are the 100 box packaging units selected by the owner/manager and HC customer loyalty program points.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 promotion 0 size poster option.
HC sales staff performed additional intervention deliveries and visited owners/managers who expressed interest in participating in the event but did not attend.
Provide owners/managers with an overview of the information presented in the event and ask them to complete the goal --
Set up the form, provide incentives and posters, and explain the record of sales data (see below).
Shops interested in choosing the North of England are invited to participate in the engagement with the aim of recruiting stores: located in a range of socio-economic settings, including inside and outside major cities, or known to have the possibility of engagement, or the possibility of an engagement is unknown.
HC issued a postal invitation a month before the engagement.
This includes customized information to the owner/manager and invites them to join with the staff.
HC contacted the owner or manager who did not reply by phone.
Research design. we used uncontrolled designs before. and-
After research and design, discuss the feasibility of cooperation with HC
Design and provide intervention and acceptability to fish and chips owners/managers and their customers.
Data collection fish and chips about participating in an engagement event or attending one-to-
Including: the identity of the owner or manager;
Number of fish and chips shops owned (if owner);
And whether they participated in the engagement with the staff.
We recorded the details of each store: location;
Local Government;
Location description (
City Center, Village Street);
Multiple Deprivation Index (IMD)
Change of position;
Provide seats;
And food standards, and actively promote small portions of food.
We agree that the implementation of the intervention should not bring direct costs to the participating fish and chips stores, and that HC should primarily promote the size to the owner/manager regarding the partial controls and the potential financial benefits of the smaller portion.
HC recruited two owners with a smaller portion meal promotion to support them in providing intervention services detailing their practical experience and economic benefits.
The research team conducted a detailed theoretical analysis of the intervention (
Supplementary Documents Online).
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp1. pdf]
Intervention description research team supports three HC development
One-hour engagement at a hotel in North April 2016East England.
HC invited the owner, manager and their staff of the fish and chips shop to attend.
The plan includes a meeting between HC and two owners of fish and chips, followed by a question and discussion meeting.
Owners/managers are encouraged to place more emphasis on partial control by using box packaging and to actively promote smaller portions of meals.
Potential economic benefits to attract a wider customer base and reduce partial size
The whole process highlighted the pro-rata reduction in fee prices such as increased trade and increased meal margins.
Shows a range to participants (
According to size and material)
Smaller part of the box, but the selected package is made by the owner/manager.
Intensive Action-
The planning activities developed by the research team include a goal --setting form (
Supplementary Documents Online B).
24 This includes a \"public square\" where the owner/manager of fish and chips details what changes they will make, how and when they will be delivered, and their confidence in delivery.
Owners/managers are encouraged to comply with these commitments.
We completed the template for the intervention description and replication (TIDieR)checklist25 (
Supplementary documents online C).
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp2. pdf]
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp3. pdf]
After the engagement, the owner/manager got one of two different 0 size posters to promote smaller meals for their store (figure 1).
These were delivered to the store within 16 days.
HC suggestion can be in-
Shop, another one for passers-by to seeby.
The additional rewards offered by HC are the 100 box packaging units selected by the owner/manager and HC customer loyalty program points.
Download figureOpen in the new tabDownload powerpoint figure 1 promotion 0 size poster option.
HC sales staff performed additional intervention deliveries and visited owners/managers who expressed interest in participating in the event but did not attend.
Provide owners/managers with an overview of the information presented in the event and ask them to complete the goal --
Set up the form, provide incentives and posters, and explain the record of sales data (see below).
Shops interested in choosing the North of England are invited to participate in the engagement with the aim of recruiting stores: located in a range of socio-economic settings, including inside and outside major cities, or known to have the possibility of engagement, or the possibility of an engagement is unknown.
HC issued a postal invitation a month before the engagement.
This includes customized information to the owner/manager and invites them to join with the staff.
HC contacted the owner or manager who did not reply by phone.
Research design. we used uncontrolled designs before. and-
After research and design, discuss the feasibility of cooperation with HC
Design and provide intervention and acceptability to fish and chips owners/managers and their customers.
Data collection fish and chips about participating in an engagement event or attending one-to-
Including: the identity of the owner or manager;
Number of fish and chips shops owned (if owner);
And whether they participated in the engagement with the staff.
We recorded the details of each store: location;
Local Government;
Location description (
City Center, Village Street);
Multiple Deprivation Index (IMD)
Change of position;
Provide seats;
Food Standard A and whether they have participated in the engagement with their employees.
We recorded the details of each store: location;
Local Government;
Location description (
City Center, Village Street);
Multiple Deprivation Index (IMD)
Change of position;
Provide seats;
Bureau of Food Standards (FSA)
Food hygiene grade.
Took digital images of all completed targets
Set up the form to record the changes promised.
Secret observation in order to provide objective change measurements, secret data collection was completed in a participating store where the research team could access part of the three time points (
Baseline for two and six weeks after intervention).
Members of the research team appear as customers.
The data collected includes visibility (
Including the display of posters)
Small portions of food are served.
One dinner, one small meal (If any)
Buy from every store.
The store menu description for a smaller portion of the meal is recorded as the packaging and meal cost used.
Components (
Fish and chips)
Weigh within two hours of purchase.
The sale of the fish and chips restaurant was obtained with a brochure documenting the sale of regular and smaller portions of meals from at least five days to at least five days before the original receipt of the poster.
Customer survey after completing six jobs
A week after the intervention, the data was secretly collected and a customer survey was conducted at the participating store (
Supplementary documents online D).
Asked in
After the customer ordered their food, but before the food was served, someone ordered their food.
Questions include the customer\'s gender, age group, understanding of the smaller portion meal supply, views on the portion meal and purchase behavior, including the frequency and cause of purchase, whether they try small portions of food or not, and whether they are willing to try small portions of food in the future.
Supplementary information [bmjopen-2018-023441-supp4. pdf]
Semi-structured interviews all shopkeepers/managers involved in the intervention are invited to attend semi-structured interviews
Explore their intervention experience by phone or phone (
Supplementary documents online D)
LG is responsible.
Interviews were also conducted with HC personnel responsible for intervention development and implementation to explore their intervention experience (
Supplementary documents online D).
Interviews with HC were conducted by FHB, a researcher who was not involved in the development and delivery of the intervention.
Descriptive statistics of data analysis (
Sample size, average ratio)
In R (LG)
Used to summarize quantitative data, but not for statistical inference.
A verbatim transcript of 28 interviews was conducted to ensure accuracy and then anonymity.
Using a constantly comparative thematic framework analysis to identify topics related to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.
29 The coding framework for each group of interviews is based on prior topics in the interview topic guide and urgent topics in the data.
The final coding framework is then applied to all transcripts and reviewed and agreed upon by the team members involved in the analysis (LG, AJA and MWh).
Results recruitment and retention
A fish and chips owner or manager was invited to the engagement. Of these, 15 (48%)
Expressed intention to attend, 9 (29%)
Attended, three did not attend, but participated in oneto-
Have a meeting with HC staff.
As a result, 12 people participated in the assessment (39%)(figure 2).
Part 2 control the flow chart of intervention participation and data collection.
There are shops in nine local governments.
Seating is available in 6 of the 12 stores.
Stores are located in the area of all stores in IMD.
The FSA health rating of 26 stores is very high, and the highest rating of 10 stores is 5 (table 1).
View this table: View Data Summary collected by inline View pop-up table 1 target setting 11 owners/managers complete target-setting form.
Everyone believes that they have provided all customers with the opportunity to buy smaller portions of meals in some form.
The main change to the usual business practices that can be inferred from the form is the public commitment to promote smaller portions of meals mainly by presenting posters (n=5; table 1).
We collected observation data from eight stores (table 2).
At baseline, only two stores clearly demonstrated the availability of small portions of food.
During a visit after at least one intervention (
Two or six weeks)
All eight stores showed the availability of small meals.
At baseline, there were smaller portions of meals on the main menu of one store, two offered only smaller portions on the lunch menu, and two were only on the children\'s menu, the two did not have small portions on any menu.
After the intervention, five of the eight stores used in-
Two stores have posters and one store poster.
The other three: one is to actively promote their own brand small meals throughout the process, but no HC posters are displayed;
The other launched a smaller meal before six people. week follow-up;
And there is only a small part on the children\'s menu.
Except for one store, all stores use box packaging at baseline, and all stores use box packaging at follow-upup.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 2 Summary of secret observation data collected by each store from baseline to sixweek follow-
Up, we observed that the average weight of the beaten fish increased by 24 grams, the average weight of chips decreased by 61 grams, and the average total dietary weight of regular meals decreased by 37 grams.
Regarding the smaller portion of the meal, we observed that the average weight of the beaten fish decreased by 2g, the average weight of the fries decreased by 26g, and the average total dietary weight decreased by 27g.
Sales at the fish and chips store returned available sales data that covered the average 7-day delivery in advance of the poster and 32-day delivery.
However, this is inconsistent in format and cannot be analyzed in detail.
Of all meals sold, the average proportion of the smaller portion was 14.
Pre-intervention and 21 2%.
2% after intervention
A store did not return sales data due to illness, and the remaining three did not provide reasons.
Customer Survey five owners/managers are allowed to conduct customer surveys in their store (table 1).
A total of 46 questionnaires were completed (table 3).
Most customers surveyed buy food once a month or more and choose the store for taste or convenience.
As most people know, smaller portions of meals can be served (72%)
Although only 20% of people bought them.
Of those who had not previously tried too little food, 46% said they were interested in trying it in the future.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 3 customer survey response structured interview View with owner/manager with eight owners and one manager, five managers
Contact 4 people by phone (table 1).
The topic analysis identified six main topics.
The relationship between the owner/manager and Henry Colbeck limits those who participate in engagement activities to be more passionate about the process than those who receive a one-time interventionto-one session.
They reported that the incident provided a \"unique \"[ID06, ID04]
Opportunities to talk to peers about industry issues.
The speakers made a deep impression on them, but they did not value the goal --setting form.
Throughout the process, participants felt strongly supported by HC.
While they appreciated the incentives offered by HC, they did not see them as necessary.
All respondents believed that they had provided a smaller portion of the meal in some form at baseline.
So for the majority, interventions constitute posters, while others report that they have developed detailed strategies to promote smaller advocacy.
An owner suggested
Broad criteria for weight, but recognition of \"universal adoption \"[ID12]was unlikely.
Poster and store settings react differently to the poster.
Some respondents thought they were \"really good . . . . . . This really shows everything . . . . . . Yes [poster]
Very relevant to our business. ID05]
Others think they are not in the spirit of their store.
The only manager who participated in the engagement said that the owner felt that the poster was in conflict with the store\'s brand and did not show [ID01].
Another boss said with great criticism that \"posters that look big are stupid\" and suggested alternative promotional materials (eg, leaflet)
Detailed introduction to \"the benefits of buying small \"[ID06].
All respondents highlighted the importance of quality customer service
Excellent customer service with small portions of meals.
A boss who has been involved in the fish and chips industry is \"almost a lifetime \"[ID09]
, After participating in the event, many changes were implemented with the support of an owner.
An owner who was unable to participate in the event reported that they did not implement a smaller portion of the meal at night because they could not rely on the service staff to provide these [ID05].
Customer feedback a small number of respondents reported that they received feedback from customers on smaller portions of meals.
However, a detailed description of the enthusiasm of a group of builders who saw the poster and welcomed the change [ID09].
Those who provide sales data report that this is direct.
However, the value of these analyses is limited by the till system.
Interviews were conducted with the people who developed and implemented the intervention interview, with three people from HC.
The topic analysis identified five topics.
To remain anonymous, the quotation below is not specifically attributed to a given provider of intervention.
The representative of the intervention delivery staff\'s motivation to intervene in the delivery staff believes that the focus of individual stores is on daily sales, which means that HC needs a \"strategic long-term\"
Industry terminology perspective.
Respondents hope stores will succeed in an increasingly competitive market.
They are responsible for driving industry innovation and acknowledge that \"I need fish and chips shops because they pay me \".
The InterventionHC representative\'s considerations in the development process point out that only by emphasizing the benefits of finance and customer service can a smaller part be effectively approached with the owner/manager.
HC employees feel that they provide information and choices to their customers, \"it depends on the customer [business owner]
We will not force them to do anything in order to make this choice.
They are also pleased to take the lead in the development and delivery of interventions, and the cost of HC is seen as an \"investment \".
The intervention party was disappointed by the HC acceptance representative\'s view of participating in the event (nine of 31)
Some shops are frustrated that they are not aware of the potential.
Although many people do not provide
It is reported that some people told HC that this is due to staffing issues.
However, the response that HC received from those who attended the meeting was positive, \"I have a lot of people calling to thank me for the event,\" which they thought was a rare \"interactive\" event: \"The fried fish workers in the same room share ideas and you can see people writing notes and asking their own questions.
Others are listening, participating, providing advice and help.
This is not often the case.
HC employees realize that not all businesses are showing posters, and some owners/managers report that the posters are too big.
However, they believe it is important to provide a clear distinction between conventional and smaller portions of the meal.
HC also sees the incentive part of the intervention as a \"goodwill\" behavior that shows their commitment to the intervention.
They do not see incentives as a necessary condition for the participation of owners/managers, and in fact not all stores take advantage of incentives.
As a direct result of this work, HC staff developed specific packaging for smaller portions of meals and related promotional materials.
In the interview, they also tried to find smaller fillets for this new package.
While the smaller portion of packaging is considered by HC staff to be a sustainable change, a more sustainable approach is needed to deliver partial control information.
Engagement and one-to-
A visit is not considered scalable or effective, \"because I have only one person, I can\'t visit thousands of fish and chips shops around \".
Experience working with the research team hc staff found that working with the research team was a positive and \"pleasant experience \". It had ‘re-To stimulate us [HC’s]
Efforts and are considered beneficial to both sides.
Recruitment and Retention
A fish and chips owner or manager was invited to the engagement. Of these, 15 (48%)
Expressed intention to attend, 9 (29%)
Attended, three did not attend, but participated in oneto-
Have a meeting with HC staff.
As a result, 12 people participated in the assessment (39%)(figure 2).
Part 2 control the flow chart of intervention participation and data collection.
There are shops in nine local governments.
Seating is available in 6 of the 12 stores.
Stores are located in the area of all stores in IMD.
The FSA health rating of 26 stores is very high, and the highest rating of 10 stores is 5 (table 1).
View this table: View Data Summary collected by inline View pop-up table 1 target setting 11 owners/managers complete target-setting form.
Everyone believes that they have provided all customers with the opportunity to buy smaller portions of meals in some form.
The main change to the usual business practices that can be inferred from the form is the public commitment to promote smaller portions of meals mainly by presenting posters (n=5; table 1).
We collected observation data from eight stores (table 2).
At baseline, only two stores clearly demonstrated the availability of small portions of food.
During a visit after at least one intervention (
Two or six weeks)
All eight stores showed the availability of small meals.
At baseline, there were smaller portions of meals on the main menu of one store, two offered only smaller portions on the lunch menu, and two were only on the children\'s menu, the two did not have small portions on any menu.
After the intervention, five of the eight stores used in-
Two stores have posters and one store poster.
The other three: one is to actively promote their own brand small meals throughout the process, but no HC posters are displayed;
The other launched a smaller meal before six people. week follow-up;
And there is only a small part on the children\'s menu.
Except for one store, all stores use box packaging at baseline, and all stores use box packaging at follow-upup.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 2 Summary of secret observation data collected by each store from baseline to sixweek follow-
Up, we observed that the average weight of the beaten fish increased by 24 grams, the average weight of chips decreased by 61 grams, and the average total dietary weight of regular meals decreased by 37 grams.
Regarding the smaller portion of the meal, we observed that the average weight of the beaten fish decreased by 2g, the average weight of the fries decreased by 26g, and the average total dietary weight decreased by 27g.
Sales at the fish and chips store returned available sales data that covered the average 7-day delivery in advance of the poster and 32-day delivery.
However, this is inconsistent in format and cannot be analyzed in detail.
Of all meals sold, the average proportion of the smaller portion was 14.
Pre-intervention and 21 2%.
2% after intervention
A store did not return sales data due to illness, and the remaining three did not provide reasons.
Customer Survey five owners/managers are allowed to conduct customer surveys in their store (table 1).
A total of 46 questionnaires were completed (table 3).
Most customers surveyed buy food once a month or more and choose the store for taste or convenience.
As most people know, smaller portions of meals can be served (72%)
Although only 20% of people bought them.
Of those who had not previously tried too little food, 46% said they were interested in trying it in the future.
View this table: View inline View pop-up table 3 customer survey response structured interview View with owner/manager with eight owners and one manager, five managers
Contact 4 people by phone (table 1).
The topic analysis identified six main topics.
The relationship between the owner/manager and Henry Colbeck limits those who participate in engagement activities to be more passionate about the process than those who receive a one-time interventionto-one session.
They reported that the incident provided a \"unique \"[ID06, ID04]
Opportunities to talk to peers about industry issues.
The speakers made a deep impression on them, but they did not value the goal --setting form.
Throughout the process, participants felt strongly supported by HC.
While they appreciated the incentives offered by HC, they did not see them as necessary.
All respondents believed that they had provided a smaller portion of the meal in some form at baseline.
So for the majority, interventions constitute posters, while others report that they have developed detailed strategies to promote smaller advocacy.
An owner suggested
Broad criteria for weight, but recognition of \"universal adoption \"[ID12]was unlikely.
Poster and store settings react differently to the poster.
Some respondents thought they were \"really good . . . . . . This really shows everything . . . . . . Yes [poster]
Very relevant to our business. ID05]
Others think they are not in the spirit of their store.
The only manager who participated in the engagement said that the owner felt that the poster was in conflict with the store\'s brand and did not show [ID01].
Another boss said with great criticism that \"posters that look big are stupid\" and suggested alternative promotional materials (eg, leaflet)
Detailed introduction to \"the benefits of buying small \"[ID06].
All respondents highlighted the importance of quality customer service
Excellent customer service with small portions of meals.
A boss who has been involved in the fish and chips industry is \"almost a lifetime \"[ID09]
, After participating in the event, many changes were implemented with the support of an owner.
An owner who was unable to participate in the event reported that they did not implement a smaller portion of the meal at night because they could not rely on the service staff to provide these [ID05].
Customer feedback a small number of respondents reported that they received feedback from customers on smaller portions of meals.
However, a detailed description of the enthusiasm of a group of builders who saw the poster and welcomed the change [ID09].
Those who provide sales data report that this is direct.
However, the value of these analyses is limited by the till system.
Interviews were conducted with the people who developed and implemented the intervention interview, with three people from HC.
The topic analysis identified five topics.
To remain anonymous, the quotation below is not specifically attributed to a given provider of intervention.
The representative of the intervention delivery staff\'s motivation to intervene in the delivery staff believes that the focus of individual stores is on daily sales, which means that HC needs a \"strategic long-term\"
Industry terminology perspective.
Respondents hope stores will succeed in an increasingly competitive market.
They are responsible for driving industry innovation and acknowledge that \"I need fish and chips shops because they pay me \".
The InterventionHC representative\'s considerations in the development process point out that only by emphasizing the benefits of finance and customer service can a smaller part be effectively approached with the owner/manager.
HC employees feel that they provide information and choices to their customers, \"it depends on the customer [business owner]
We will not force them to do anything in order to make this choice.
They are also pleased to take the lead in the development and delivery of interventions, and the cost of HC is seen as an \"investment \".
The intervention party was disappointed by the HC acceptance representative\'s view of participating in the event (nine of 31)
Some shops are frustrated that they are not aware of the potential.
Although many people do not provide
It is reported that some people told HC that this is due to staffing issues.
However, the response that HC received from those who attended the meeting was positive, \"I have a lot of people calling to thank me for the event,\" which they thought was a rare \"interactive\" event: \"The fried fish workers in the same room share ideas and you can see people writing notes and asking their own questions.
Others are listening, participating, providing advice and help.
This is not often the case.
HC employees realize that not all businesses are showing posters, and some owners/managers report that the posters are too big.
However, they believe it is important to provide a clear distinction between conventional and smaller portions of the meal.
HC also sees the incentive part of the intervention as a \"goodwill\" behavior that shows their commitment to the intervention.
They do not see incentives as a necessary condition for the participation of owners/managers, and in fact not all stores take advantage of incentives.
As a direct result of this work, HC staff developed specific packaging for smaller portions of meals and related promotional materials.
In the interview, they also tried to find smaller fillets for this new package.
While the smaller portion of packaging is considered by HC staff to be a sustainable change, a more sustainable approach is needed to deliver partial control information.
Engagement and one-to-
A visit is not considered scalable or effective, \"because I have only one person, I can\'t visit thousands of fish and chips shops around \".
Experience working with the research team hc staff found that working with the research team was a positive and \"pleasant experience \". It had ‘re-To stimulate us [HC’s]
Efforts and are considered beneficial to both sides.
Interviews with eight owners, one manager and five managers
Contact 4 people by phone (table 1).
The topic analysis identified six main topics.
The relationship between the owner/manager and Henry Colbeck limits those who participate in engagement activities to be more passionate about the process than those who receive a one-time interventionto-one session.
They reported that the incident provided a \"unique \"[ID06, ID04]
Opportunities to talk to peers about industry issues.
The speakers made a deep impression on them, but they did not value the goal --setting form.
Throughout the process, participants felt strongly supported by HC.
While they appreciated the incentives offered by HC, they did not see them as necessary.
All respondents believed that they had provided a smaller portion of the meal in some form at baseline.
So for the majority, interventions constitute posters, while others report that they have developed detailed strategies to promote smaller advocacy.
An owner suggested
Broad criteria for weight, but recognition of \"universal adoption \"[ID12]was unlikely.
Poster and store settings react differently to the poster.
Some respondents thought they were \"really good . . . . . . This really shows everything . . . . . . Yes [poster]
Very relevant to our business. ID05]
Others think they are not in the spirit of their store.
The only manager who participated in the engagement said that the owner felt that the poster was in conflict with the store\'s brand and did not show [ID01].
Another boss said with great criticism that \"posters that look big are stupid\" and suggested alternative promotional materials (eg, leaflet)
Detailed introduction to \"the benefits of buying small \"[ID06].
All respondents highlighted the importance of quality customer service
Excellent customer service with small portions of meals.
A boss who has been involved in the fish and chips industry is \"almost a lifetime \"[ID09]
, After participating in the event, many changes were implemented with the support of an owner.
An owner who was unable to participate in the event reported that they did not implement a smaller portion of the meal at night because they could not rely on the service staff to provide these [ID05].
Customer feedback a small number of respondents reported that they received feedback from customers on smaller portions of meals.
However, a detailed description of the enthusiasm of a group of builders who saw the poster and welcomed the change [ID09].
Those who provide sales data report that this is direct.
However, the value of these analyses is limited by the till system.
Interviews were conducted with the people who developed and implemented the intervention interview, with three people from HC.
The topic analysis identified five topics.
To remain anonymous, the quotation below is not specifically attributed to a given provider of intervention.
The representative of the intervention delivery staff\'s motivation to intervene in the delivery staff believes that the focus of individual stores is on daily sales, which means that HC needs a \"strategic long-term\"
Industry terminology perspective.
Respondents hope stores will succeed in an increasingly competitive market.
They are responsible for driving industry innovation and acknowledge that \"I need fish and chips shops because they pay me \".
The InterventionHC representative\'s considerations in the development process point out that only by emphasizing the benefits of finance and customer service can a smaller part be effectively approached with the owner/manager.
HC employees feel that they provide information and choices to their customers, \"it depends on the customer [business owner]
We will not force them to do anything in order to make this choice.
They are also pleased to take the lead in the development and delivery of interventions, and the cost of HC is seen as an \"investment \".
The intervention party was disappointed by the HC acceptance representative\'s view of participating in the event (nine of 31)
Some shops are frustrated that they are not aware of the potential.
Although many people do not provide
It is reported that some people told HC that this is due to staffing issues.
However, the response that HC received from those who attended the meeting was positive, \"I have a lot of people calling to thank me for the event,\" which they thought was a rare \"interactive\" event: \"The fried fish workers in the same room share ideas and you can see people writing notes and asking their own questions.
Others are listening, participating, providing advice and help.
This is not often the case.
HC employees realize that not all businesses are showing posters, and some owners/managers report that the posters are too big.
However, they believe it is important to provide a clear distinction between conventional and smaller portions of the meal.
HC also sees the incentive part of the intervention as a \"goodwill\" behavior that shows their commitment to the intervention.
They do not see incentives as a necessary condition for the participation of owners/managers, and in fact not all stores take advantage of incentives.
As a direct result of this work, HC staff developed specific packaging for smaller portions of meals and related promotional materials.
In the interview, they also tried to find smaller fillets for this new package.
While the smaller portion of packaging is considered by HC staff to be a sustainable change, a more sustainable approach is needed to deliver partial control information.
Engagement and one-to-
A visit is not considered scalable or effective, \"because I have only one person, I can\'t visit thousands of fish and chips shops around \".
Experience working with the research team hc staff found that working with the research team was a positive and \"pleasant experience \". It had ‘re-To stimulate us [HC’s]
Efforts and are considered beneficial to both sides.
The discussion of the main investigation stated that we found it feasible to work together.
Design and provide interventions to promote smaller parts with business partners, which are acceptable for fish and chips stores and their customers.
Participants in the event attached great importance to it and liked it.
Shopkeepers/managers are generally willing to introduce and promote smaller portions of meals.
We successfully measured the part size and collected some sales data.
We observed that after the intervention, both routine and smaller portions of meals were scaled down and the proportion of meals sold increased.
The decrease in the amount of ordinary meals is due to the discharge of French fries --
Minimum nutrition
The dense composition of the meal.
As all participating owners/managers believe that their businesses offer a smaller portion of the meal in some form at baseline, additional public promotions are widely accepted.
Most people also use box packaging at baseline, which means it is unlikely that this is a key component of the intervention.
The assessment is carried out independently, avoiding the possibility of competing interests of business partners.
As far as we know, this is the first study to assess the feasibility of working with wholesale suppliers
Design and provide public health interventions and demonstrate the potential role of wholesale suppliers in improving the supply of hot takeout food.
In a larger study, secret observations, while feasible, cost a lot of resources.
While the participating stores have a high FSA health rating, 27 stores cover a wide range of IMD 10 yuan and 26 indicate that intervention may be feasible in a range of socio-economic settings
The acceptability of stores with lower hygiene scores is unknown.
Participants did not find it useful to set goals through the \"public square.
Expectations for the owner/manager are clearer, which may improve.
Some stores do not take advantage of posters and other marketing materials such as flyers, which may involve a wider range of stores.
Due to the actual limitations of the study, the customer survey must be brief.
So we did not
Conduct in-depth interviews with customers to gain a deeper understanding of their choices and preferences.
HC believes that some aspects of the intervention are unsustainable and need further thinking to determine how any such intervention can be expanded --up.
We did not collect data on the impact of the total diet or total population of our customers.
Due to time and resource constraints, our data is unlikely to be representative.
In addition, we did not achieve data saturation in the interview, and our customer survey was not verified or piloted before use.
Our findings may not be universally accepted outside the UK.
Compared with other studies, the number of intervention studies for takeout in the UK was limited and rarely evaluated.
To date, most interventions have been implemented by local authorities, limiting their geographical scope.
Suppliers like HC have a much greater geographic impact.
While mandatory methods for partial control may be more effective than voluntary plans, they may be more difficult to implement.
32 33 our intervention is a rare voluntary industry
Led method of partial control.
The difficulty of introducing independent takeout in public health interventions has previously been described, in which case it may be a challenge to simply identify a given takeout owner.
The 29% recruitment rate we have achieved is advantageous compared to other interventions in the department;
In another undisclosed local government
Our recruitment rate has reached 10%.
34 we received limited feedback from people who did not participate in the engagement, although the lack of employee insurance could be an issue.
The results show that it is feasible to develop suppliers in the takeout industry.
Led intervention based on \"provide information\" and \"support selection\" 35, which is acceptable among stakeholders.
We emphasize the importance of products.
A specific package that limits the size of a portion can partially offset the variability of the server\'s ability to provide a consistent portion.
A smaller portion of the box packaging for HC is designed and branded to provide a smaller size \"lite-BITE’ meal.
The sale of these boxes provides evidence for a longer period of time. term viability;
In 2017, HC sold \'lite-
A Bitcoin box for 253 unique accounts (D.
McLean, personal communications, 2018).
Take-out bosses/managers seem to be more receptive to partial control information from peers than external organizations, primarily based on potential financial benefits.
Individuals responsible for implementing changes in takeout (
Usually the owner or manager)
Clear and practical instructions on how to make a change may be required.
Ideally, interventions should seek to engage with the takeout owner or the person in charge of the brand, who should communicate changes to the service staff in a broader context of good \"customer service.
Unanswered questions and future research centres do not plan further engagement.
An alternative platform may be required to provide information and guidance in a collective form to maximize the potential of smaller packages (
Seminar on trade activities).
Although it is generally acceptable to promote smaller portions of food, more than half of the respondents were not interested in future attempts and had not previously purchased smaller portions of food.
However, a small meal is clearly attractive to others.
Further work is needed to assess whether and how to further change the customer\'s choice.
35 qualitative interviews with customers can effectively inform this, including their views on the value of the mealfor-money.
Future research can explore the impact of a small amount of food in fish and French fries stores on customers\' diets and the broader public health impact, as well as the potential to promote smaller meals through trade organizations and their activities.
From a practical point of view, owners and managers can also benefit from a clearer definition.
It is useful to define and develop guidelines to support delivery.
While this intervention is feasible in samples of fish and chips shops, further work should be sought to identify takeout and other departments in the wider catering industry that can apply this approach.
The main investigation states that we found cooperation feasible.
Design and provide interventions to promote smaller parts with business partners, which are acceptable for fish and chips stores and their customers.
Participants in the event attached great importance to it and liked it.
Shopkeepers/managers are generally willing to introduce and promote smaller portions of meals.
We successfully measured the part size and collected some sales data.
We observed that after the intervention, both routine and smaller portions of meals were scaled down and the proportion of meals sold increased.
The decrease in the amount of ordinary meals is due to the discharge of French fries --
Minimum nutrition
The dense composition of the meal.
As all participating owners/managers believe that their businesses offer a smaller portion of the meal in some form at baseline, additional public promotions are widely accepted.
Most people also use box packaging at baseline, which means it is unlikely that this is a key component of the intervention.
The assessment is carried out independently, avoiding the possibility of competing interests of business partners.
As far as we know, this is the first study to assess the feasibility of working with wholesale suppliers
Design and provide public health interventions and demonstrate the potential role of wholesale suppliers in improving the supply of hot takeout food.
In a larger study, secret observations, while feasible, cost a lot of resources.
While the participating stores have a high FSA health rating, 27 stores cover a wide range of IMD 10 yuan and 26 indicate that intervention may be feasible in a range of socio-economic settings
The acceptability of stores with lower hygiene scores is unknown.
Participants did not find it useful to set goals through the \"public square.
Expectations for the owner/manager are clearer, which may improve.
Some stores do not take advantage of posters and other marketing materials such as flyers, which may involve a wider range of stores.
Due to the actual limitations of the study, the customer survey must be brief.
So we did not
Conduct in-depth interviews with customers to gain a deeper understanding of their choices and preferences.
HC believes that some aspects of the intervention are unsustainable and need further thinking to determine how any such intervention can be expanded --up.
We did not collect data on the impact of the total diet or total population of our customers.
Due to time and resource constraints, our data is unlikely to be representative.
In addition, we did not achieve data saturation in the interview, and our customer survey was not verified or piloted before use.
Our findings may not be universally accepted outside the UK.
Compared with other studies, the number of intervention studies for takeout in the UK was limited and rarely evaluated.
To date, most interventions have been implemented by local authorities, limiting their geographical scope.
Suppliers like HC have a much greater geographic impact.
While mandatory methods for partial control may be more effective than voluntary plans, they may be more difficult to implement.
32 33 our intervention is a rare voluntary industry
Led method of partial control.
The difficulty of introducing independent takeout in public health interventions has previously been described, in which case it may be a challenge to simply identify a given takeout owner.
The 29% recruitment rate we have achieved is advantageous compared to other interventions in the department;
In another undisclosed local government
Our recruitment rate has reached 10%.
34 we received limited feedback from people who did not participate in the engagement, although the lack of employee insurance could be an issue.
The results show that it is feasible to develop suppliers in the takeout industry.
Led intervention based on \"provide information\" and \"support selection\" 35, which is acceptable among stakeholders.
We emphasize the importance of products.
A specific package that limits the size of a portion can partially offset the variability of the server\'s ability to provide a consistent portion.
A smaller portion of the box packaging for HC is designed and branded to provide a smaller size \"lite-BITE’ meal.
The sale of these boxes provides evidence for a longer period of time. term viability;
In 2017, HC sold \'lite-
A Bitcoin box for 253 unique accounts (D.
McLean, personal communications, 2018).
Take-out bosses/managers seem to be more receptive to partial control information from peers than external organizations, primarily based on potential financial benefits.
Individuals responsible for implementing changes in takeout (
Usually the owner or manager)
Clear and practical instructions on how to make a change may be required.
Ideally, interventions should seek to engage with the takeout owner or the person in charge of the brand, who should communicate changes to the service staff in a broader context of good \"customer service.
Unanswered questions and future research centres do not plan further engagement.
An alternative platform may be required to provide information and guidance in a collective form to maximize the potential of smaller packages (
Seminar on trade activities).
Although it is generally acceptable to promote smaller portions of food, more than half of the respondents were not interested in future attempts and had not previously purchased smaller portions of food.
However, a small meal is clearly attractive to others.
Further work is needed to assess whether and how to further change the customer\'s choice.
35 qualitative interviews with customers can effectively inform this, including their views on the value of the mealfor-money.
Future research can explore the impact of a small amount of food in fish and French fries stores on customers\' diets and the broader public health impact, as well as the potential to promote smaller meals through trade organizations and their activities.
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